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Converting English text to Shavian script

To learn about the Shavian Alphabet, check out

I've written a C program, a Python program, a dictionary used by both, a British supplement, and a Firefox extension that transport you into a bizarro alternate universe where everyone already uses Shavian.

To run on my web server:

Enter a URL to translate into with pronunciation:

Or enter your own text to translate into with pronunciation here:

To run it on your web server, you'll need this CGI script.

To install it on your Linux computer:

sudo bash
apt install wget xz python3
pip3 install nltk
>>> import nltk
>>> exit()
cd /usr/local/share
cd shavian
mv linux.json /usr/lib/mozilla/native-messaging-hosts/shavian.json
To install it on your Windows computer:
Install the latest version of Python. Choose "Customize installation" and check
the boxes "Install for all users" and "Add Python to environment variables".

At the Command prompt, do "pip install nltk".

In Python, do "import nltk" and "'averaged_perceptron_tagger')"

Create a system environment variable PYTHONIOENCODING with the value "utf-8".

Download and extract it to C:\

Run "regedit" and add two keys:


both equal to c:\shavian\windows.json
In Firefox, go to about:debugging, click "This Firefox", then "Load Temporary Add-on", and choose the file /usr/local/share/shavian/manifest.json or C:\shavian\manifest.json. Every website displays normally for a second, then switches to Shavian. This continues until you either quit Firefox or right-click the "๐‘–๐‘ท" button and choose "Remove Extension".

For British spellings, add " brit.dict" after "dave.dict" in You can also append your own dictionary to this line, with changes taking effect as soon as you load or re-load a web page.

If some text appears in a low-quality bitmap font, it's because you don't have a Serif font for Shavian. Either go get one, or go to Preferences/Fonts/Advanced and set your Serif font to "Noto Sans Shavian".

Android web browsers do not allow extensions to run Python code, but you can still run from the command line. Yes, Android has a command line. Go to, not the Play Store, download the Termux APK file, and install it with Storage permission. In it, do "pkg install wget xz python3" and install NLTK as shown above.

Then add a function to the .bashrc file:

  wget -N{,dave.dict.xz}
  [ dave.dict.xz -nt dave.dict ] && xz -dkf dave.dict.xz
  wget -k -U Mozilla/5.0 -O normal.html $1
  echo Converting to Shavian...
  python3 dave.dict < normal.html \
	> /storage/emulated/0/Download/shavian.html
  echo All done!
Copy a link, open Termux, type "shave ", paste the link, press Enter, wait for it to finish, then go to File Manager and open Download/shavian.html.
For PDF files, convert to HTML and proceed as usual:
pdftohtml -stdout file.pdf | sed 's/&#160;/ /g' | sed 's@<br/>@ @g' | grep -v '<hr/>' | awk '{ print "<p/>"$0 }' > normal.html
python3 dave.dict < normal.html > shavian.html

There are many ways to input Shavian text, but Gaspar Sinai's Yudit lets users enter non-Latin text without learning a new keyboard layout. Here's my keymap file. To install it, do:
mytool -convert my -write ~/.yudit/data/ -mys Shavian.mys -rmys Shavian.mys
If you don't like my Latin-to-Shavian mapping, you can very easily change it.
To display Shavian text in Xterm, I designed some free bitmap glyphs. Here's a specimen in 6x13 fixed, which has been X11's default font since the 1980s because of its compactness and superior readability:

Xterm defaults to black-on-white, but I much prefer white on dark slate gray. The same text in your web browser's default font looks like this:

๐‘ž ๐‘ฟ๐‘ฏ๐‘จ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฅ๐‘ฉ๐‘• ๐‘›๐‘ง๐‘’๐‘ค๐‘ผ๐‘ฑ๐‘–๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ ๐‘ž ๐‘”๐‘ป๐‘‘๐‘ฐ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ฟ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฒ๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘› ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ฑ๐‘‘๐‘• ๐‘ ยท๐‘ฉ๐‘ฅ๐‘ง๐‘ฎ๐‘ฆ๐‘’๐‘ฉ, ๐‘ข๐‘ง๐‘ฏ ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ž ๐‘’๐‘น๐‘• ๐‘ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฟ๐‘ฅ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ฆ๐‘๐‘ง๐‘ฏ๐‘‘๐‘•, ๐‘ฆ๐‘‘ ๐‘š๐‘ฆ๐‘’๐‘ณ๐‘ฅ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ฏ๐‘ง๐‘•๐‘ฉ๐‘•๐‘บ๐‘ฆ ๐‘“ ๐‘ข๐‘ณ๐‘ฏ ๐‘๐‘ฐ๐‘๐‘ฉ๐‘ค ๐‘‘ ๐‘›๐‘ฆ๐‘Ÿ๐‘ช๐‘ค๐‘ ๐‘ž ๐‘๐‘ฉ๐‘ค๐‘ฆ๐‘‘๐‘ฆ๐‘’๐‘ฉ๐‘ค ๐‘š๐‘จ๐‘ฏ๐‘›๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ข๐‘ฆ๐‘— ๐‘ฃ๐‘จ๐‘ ๐‘’๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘ง๐‘’๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘› ๐‘ž๐‘ง๐‘ฅ ๐‘ข๐‘ฆ๐‘ž ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘ณ๐‘ž๐‘ผ, ๐‘ฏ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฉ๐‘•๐‘ฟ๐‘ฅ ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฅ๐‘ณ๐‘™ ๐‘ž ๐‘๐‘ฌ๐‘ผ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ ๐‘ž ๐‘ป๐‘”, ๐‘ž ๐‘•๐‘ง๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฉ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ฐ๐‘’๐‘ข๐‘ฉ๐‘ค ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ฑ๐‘–๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ข๐‘ฆ๐‘— ๐‘ž ๐‘ค๐‘ท๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฑ๐‘—๐‘ผ ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฑ๐‘—๐‘ผ'๐‘Ÿ ๐‘œ๐‘ช๐‘› ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘๐‘ฒ๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘ค ๐‘ž๐‘ง๐‘ฅ, ๐‘ฉ ๐‘›๐‘ฐ๐‘•๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฆ๐‘•๐‘๐‘ง๐‘’๐‘‘ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ž ๐‘ฉ๐‘๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘˜๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ ๐‘ฅ๐‘จ๐‘ฏ๐‘’๐‘ฒ๐‘ฏ๐‘› ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฆ๐‘’๐‘ข๐‘ฒ๐‘ผ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ž๐‘จ๐‘‘ ๐‘ž๐‘ฑ ๐‘–๐‘ซ๐‘› ๐‘›๐‘ฆ๐‘’๐‘ค๐‘บ ๐‘ž ๐‘’๐‘ท๐‘Ÿ๐‘ฉ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ข๐‘ฆ๐‘— ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฅ๐‘๐‘ง๐‘ค ๐‘ž๐‘ง๐‘ฅ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ž ๐‘•๐‘ง๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฑ๐‘–๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ.

๐‘ข๐‘ฐ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ด๐‘ค๐‘› ๐‘ž๐‘ฐ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘‘๐‘ฎ๐‘ต๐‘ž๐‘Ÿ ๐‘‘ ๐‘š๐‘ฐ ๐‘•๐‘ง๐‘ค๐‘“-๐‘ง๐‘๐‘ฆ๐‘›๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘, ๐‘ž๐‘จ๐‘‘ ๐‘ท๐‘ค ๐‘ฅ๐‘ง๐‘ฏ ๐‘ธ ๐‘’๐‘ฎ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฑ๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘› ๐‘ฐ๐‘’๐‘ข๐‘ฉ๐‘ค, ๐‘ž๐‘จ๐‘‘ ๐‘ž๐‘ฑ ๐‘ธ ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘›๐‘ฌ๐‘› ๐‘š๐‘ฒ ๐‘ž๐‘บ ๐‘’๐‘ฎ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฑ๐‘‘๐‘ผ ๐‘ข๐‘ฆ๐‘ž ๐‘•๐‘ป๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ณ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฑ๐‘ค๐‘พ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฉ๐‘š๐‘ฉ๐‘ค ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฒ๐‘‘๐‘•, ๐‘ž๐‘จ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฅ๐‘ณ๐‘™ ๐‘ž๐‘ฐ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ธ ๐‘ค๐‘ฒ๐‘“, ๐‘ค๐‘ฆ๐‘š๐‘ผ๐‘‘๐‘ฆ ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ž ๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘•๐‘ฟ๐‘‘ ๐‘ ๐‘ฃ๐‘จ๐‘๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฉ๐‘•.--๐‘ž๐‘จ๐‘‘ ๐‘‘ ๐‘•๐‘ฆ๐‘’๐‘˜๐‘ซ๐‘ผ ๐‘ž๐‘ฐ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฒ๐‘‘๐‘•, ๐‘œ๐‘ณ๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฅ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘๐‘• ๐‘ธ ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ฆ๐‘‘๐‘ฟ๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘› ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฅ๐‘ณ๐‘™ ๐‘ฅ๐‘ง๐‘ฏ, ๐‘›๐‘ฆ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฒ๐‘๐‘ฆ๐‘™ ๐‘ž๐‘บ ๐‘ก๐‘ณ๐‘•๐‘‘ ๐‘๐‘ฌ๐‘ผ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘“๐‘ฎ๐‘ช๐‘ฅ ๐‘ž ๐‘’๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘•๐‘ง๐‘ฏ๐‘‘ ๐‘ ๐‘ž ๐‘œ๐‘ณ๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฏ๐‘›, --๐‘ž๐‘จ๐‘‘ ๐‘ข๐‘ง๐‘ฏ๐‘ง๐‘๐‘ผ ๐‘ง๐‘ฏ๐‘ฆ ๐‘“๐‘น๐‘ฅ ๐‘ ๐‘œ๐‘ณ๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฅ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘ ๐‘š๐‘ฆ๐‘’๐‘ณ๐‘ฅ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘›๐‘ฆ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ฎ๐‘ณ๐‘’๐‘‘๐‘ฆ๐‘ ๐‘ ๐‘ž๐‘ฐ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ง๐‘ฏ๐‘›๐‘Ÿ, ๐‘ฆ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฆ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ž ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฒ๐‘‘ ๐‘ ๐‘ž ๐‘๐‘ฐ๐‘๐‘ฉ๐‘ค ๐‘‘ ๐‘ท๐‘ค๐‘‘๐‘ผ ๐‘น ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฉ๐‘š๐‘ช๐‘ค๐‘ฆ๐‘– ๐‘ฆ๐‘‘, ๐‘ฏ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ฆ๐‘‘๐‘ฟ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฟ ๐‘œ๐‘ณ๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฅ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘, ๐‘ค๐‘ฑ๐‘ฆ๐‘™ ๐‘ฆ๐‘‘๐‘• ๐‘“๐‘ฌ๐‘ฏ๐‘›๐‘ฑ๐‘–๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ช๐‘ฏ ๐‘•๐‘ณ๐‘— ๐‘๐‘ฎ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘•๐‘ฉ๐‘๐‘ฉ๐‘ค๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ฏ ๐‘น๐‘œ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฒ๐‘Ÿ๐‘ฆ๐‘™ ๐‘ฆ๐‘‘๐‘• ๐‘๐‘ฌ๐‘ผ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ ๐‘•๐‘ณ๐‘— ๐‘“๐‘น๐‘ฅ, ๐‘จ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ž๐‘ง๐‘ฅ ๐‘–๐‘จ๐‘ค ๐‘•๐‘ฐ๐‘ฅ ๐‘ฅ๐‘ด๐‘•๐‘‘ ๐‘ค๐‘ฒ๐‘’๐‘ค๐‘ฆ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฆ๐‘“๐‘ง๐‘’๐‘‘ ๐‘ž๐‘บ ๐‘•๐‘ฑ๐‘“๐‘‘๐‘ฆ ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ฃ๐‘จ๐‘๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฉ๐‘•. ๐‘๐‘ฎ๐‘ต๐‘›๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘•, ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘›๐‘ฐ๐‘›, ๐‘ข๐‘ฆ๐‘ค ๐‘›๐‘ฆ๐‘’๐‘‘๐‘ฑ๐‘‘ ๐‘ž๐‘จ๐‘‘ ๐‘œ๐‘ณ๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฅ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘๐‘• ๐‘ค๐‘ช๐‘™ ๐‘ฆ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘จ๐‘š๐‘ค๐‘ฆ๐‘–๐‘‘ ๐‘–๐‘ซ๐‘› ๐‘ฏ๐‘ช๐‘‘ ๐‘š๐‘ฐ ๐‘—๐‘ฑ๐‘ฏ๐‘ก๐‘› ๐‘“ ๐‘ค๐‘ฒ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฏ ๐‘‘๐‘ฎ๐‘จ๐‘ฏ๐‘Ÿ๐‘พ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘ ๐‘’๐‘ท๐‘Ÿ๐‘ฉ๐‘Ÿ; ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ฉ๐‘’๐‘น๐‘›๐‘ฆ๐‘™๐‘ค๐‘ฆ ๐‘ท๐‘ค ๐‘ฆ๐‘’๐‘•๐‘๐‘ฝ๐‘พ๐‘ฏ๐‘• ๐‘ฃ๐‘จ๐‘” ๐‘–๐‘ด๐‘ฏ, ๐‘ž๐‘จ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฅ๐‘จ๐‘ฏ๐‘’๐‘ฒ๐‘ฏ๐‘› ๐‘ธ ๐‘ฅ๐‘น ๐‘›๐‘ฆ๐‘•๐‘๐‘ด๐‘Ÿ๐‘› ๐‘‘ ๐‘•๐‘ณ๐‘“๐‘ผ, ๐‘ข๐‘ฒ๐‘ค ๐‘ฐ๐‘๐‘ฉ๐‘ค๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ธ ๐‘•๐‘ณ๐‘“๐‘ผ๐‘ฉ๐‘š๐‘ฉ๐‘ค, ๐‘ž๐‘จ๐‘ฏ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฒ๐‘‘ ๐‘ž๐‘ง๐‘ฅ๐‘•๐‘ง๐‘ค๐‘๐‘Ÿ ๐‘š๐‘ฒ ๐‘ฉ๐‘š๐‘ช๐‘ค๐‘ฆ๐‘–๐‘ฆ๐‘™ ๐‘ž ๐‘“๐‘น๐‘ฅ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ข๐‘ฆ๐‘— ๐‘ž๐‘ฑ ๐‘ธ ๐‘ฉ๐‘’๐‘ณ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘ฅ๐‘›. ๐‘š๐‘ณ๐‘‘ ๐‘ข๐‘ง๐‘ฏ ๐‘ฉ ๐‘ค๐‘ช๐‘™ ๐‘‘๐‘ฎ๐‘ฑ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ ๐‘ฉ๐‘š๐‘ฟ๐‘•๐‘ฉ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ฟ๐‘Ÿ๐‘ป๐‘๐‘ฑ๐‘–๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘Ÿ, ๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘•๐‘ฟ๐‘ฆ๐‘™ ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘๐‘บ๐‘พ๐‘š๐‘ค๐‘ฆ ๐‘ž ๐‘•๐‘ฑ๐‘ฅ ๐‘ช๐‘š๐‘ก๐‘ง๐‘’๐‘‘ ๐‘ฆ๐‘๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘•๐‘ฉ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ฉ ๐‘›๐‘ฆ๐‘Ÿ๐‘ฒ๐‘ฏ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฆ๐‘›๐‘ฟ๐‘• ๐‘ž๐‘ง๐‘ฅ ๐‘ณ๐‘ฏ๐‘›๐‘ผ ๐‘จ๐‘š๐‘•๐‘ฉ๐‘ค๐‘ต๐‘‘ ๐‘›๐‘ง๐‘•๐‘๐‘ฉ๐‘‘๐‘ฆ๐‘Ÿ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฅ, ๐‘ฆ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฆ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ž๐‘บ ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฒ๐‘‘, ๐‘ฆ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฆ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ž๐‘บ ๐‘›๐‘ฟ๐‘‘๐‘ฆ, ๐‘‘ ๐‘”๐‘ฎ๐‘ด ๐‘ช๐‘“ ๐‘•๐‘ณ๐‘— ๐‘œ๐‘ณ๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฅ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘, ๐‘ฏ ๐‘‘ ๐‘๐‘ฎ๐‘ฉ๐‘๐‘ฒ๐‘› ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฟ ๐‘œ๐‘ธ๐‘›๐‘Ÿ ๐‘“ ๐‘ž๐‘บ ๐‘“๐‘ฟ๐‘—๐‘ผ ๐‘•๐‘ฆ๐‘’๐‘˜๐‘ซ๐‘ผ๐‘ฆ๐‘‘๐‘ฆ.--๐‘•๐‘ณ๐‘— ๐‘ฃ๐‘จ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘š๐‘ฐ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ž ๐‘๐‘ฑ๐‘–๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘ ๐‘•๐‘ณ๐‘“๐‘ผ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘• ๐‘ ๐‘ž๐‘ฐ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘’๐‘ช๐‘ค๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฆ๐‘Ÿ; ๐‘ฏ ๐‘•๐‘ณ๐‘— ๐‘ฆ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฌ ๐‘ž ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฆ๐‘•๐‘ง๐‘•๐‘ฆ๐‘‘๐‘ฆ ๐‘ข๐‘ฆ๐‘— ๐‘’๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ฎ๐‘ฑ๐‘ฏ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ž๐‘ง๐‘ฅ ๐‘‘ ๐‘ท๐‘ค๐‘‘๐‘ผ ๐‘ž๐‘บ ๐‘“๐‘น๐‘ฅ๐‘ผ ๐‘•๐‘ฆ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘ฅ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ ๐‘œ๐‘ณ๐‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฅ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘. ๐‘ž ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฆ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฆ ๐‘ ๐‘ž ๐‘๐‘ฎ๐‘ง๐‘Ÿ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘ ๐‘’๐‘ฆ๐‘™ ๐‘ ๐‘œ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฑ๐‘‘ ยท๐‘š๐‘ฎ๐‘ฆ๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ฆ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ฉ ๐‘ฃ๐‘ฆ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ผ๐‘ฆ ๐‘ ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฆ๐‘๐‘ฐ๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘› ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ๐‘ก๐‘ผ๐‘ฆ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘ฏ ๐‘ฟ๐‘Ÿ๐‘ป๐‘๐‘ฑ๐‘–๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘Ÿ, ๐‘ท๐‘ค ๐‘ฃ๐‘จ๐‘๐‘ฆ๐‘™ ๐‘ฆ๐‘ฏ ๐‘›๐‘ฆ๐‘ฎ๐‘ง๐‘’๐‘‘ ๐‘ช๐‘š๐‘ก๐‘ง๐‘’๐‘‘ ๐‘ž ๐‘ฆ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘จ๐‘š๐‘ค๐‘ฆ๐‘–๐‘ฅ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘‘ ๐‘ ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ ๐‘จ๐‘š๐‘•๐‘ฉ๐‘ค๐‘ต๐‘‘ ๐‘‘๐‘ฆ๐‘ฎ๐‘ฉ๐‘ฏ๐‘ฆ ๐‘ด๐‘๐‘ผ ๐‘ž๐‘ฐ๐‘Ÿ ๐‘•๐‘‘๐‘ฑ๐‘‘๐‘•. ๐‘‘ ๐‘๐‘ฎ๐‘ต๐‘ ๐‘ž๐‘ฆ๐‘•, ๐‘ค๐‘ง๐‘‘ ๐‘“๐‘จ๐‘’๐‘‘๐‘• ๐‘š๐‘ฐ ๐‘•๐‘ฉ๐‘š๐‘ฅ๐‘ฆ๐‘‘๐‘ฉ๐‘› ๐‘‘ ๐‘ฉ ๐‘’๐‘จ๐‘ฏ๐‘›๐‘ฆ๐‘› ๐‘ข๐‘ป๐‘ค๐‘›.