·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷

𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘Šđ‘đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Ÿ, 𐑞 𐑓𐑼𐑰 𐑩𐑯𐑕đ‘Čđ‘’đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Ÿ
·𐑥𐑳𐑄𐑐 𐑑 đ‘Żđ‘šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż ·𐑥𐑳𐑄𐑐 𐑑 𐑕𐑻𐑗

·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷
Middle-aged man with greying hair and full beard
·𐑚đ‘č𐑯( 1856-07-26) 26 𐑥𐑩𐑀đ‘Č 1856

·𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑎𐑚𐑧𐑀𐑎, ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯, ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›
·𐑛đ‘Č𐑛 2 đ‘Żđ‘Žđ‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1950 (1950-11-02) (𐑱𐑥𐑛 94)

·𐑱𐑩𐑑 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕, Â·đ‘Łđ‘žđ‘‘đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘›đ‘–đ‘Œ, Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›
·𐑟𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑕 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 ·𐑒đ‘čđ‘Żđ‘Œ, ·𐑱𐑩𐑑 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕
·đ‘Ș𐑒𐑿𐑐𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯
  • ·𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑
  • 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒
  • 𐑐𐑎𐑀𐑧𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑
  • 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑝𐑩𐑕𐑑
·𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 (1856–1950)

·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 (𐑛𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊 1934–1950)
·𐑕𐑐𐑏𐑕

Â·đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘—đ‘Œ

·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷(/ ˈ b ɜːr n ɑːr d/; [1] 26 𐑥𐑩𐑀đ‘Č 1856– 2 đ‘Żđ‘Žđ‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1950), 𐑯𐑮𐑯 𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑕𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑊 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑, 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒, 𐑐𐑎𐑀𐑧𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑯 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑝𐑩𐑕𐑑. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑯 Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ż đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ, đ‘’đ‘łđ‘€đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 1880𐑟 𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑛𐑧𐑔 𐑯 𐑚𐑩𐑘đ‘Ș𐑯𐑛. 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑩 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ, 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑯 Â·đ‘•đ‘”đ‘đ‘Œđ‘„đ‘šđ‘Ż (1902), Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘„đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż (1912) 𐑯 ·𐑕𐑱𐑯𐑑 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯 (1923). 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑟𐑱𐑯𐑥 𐑩𐑯𐑒đ‘čđ‘đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑚𐑮𐑔 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 𐑕𐑹𐑑đ‘Čđ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑕𐑑đ‘č𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘č𐑩, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑞 𐑀𐑰𐑛𐑊𐑙 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1925 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑎𐑚𐑧𐑀 ·𐑐𐑟đ‘Č𐑟 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘—đ‘Œ.

𐑚đ‘č𐑯 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯, ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘› 𐑑 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1876, 𐑱đ‘ș 𐑣𐑰 đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘łđ‘œđ‘©đ‘€đ‘› 𐑑 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘, 𐑯 𐑊𐑄𐑚𐑞𐑒𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑩 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘• 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑕𐑧𐑕 𐑝 𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓-𐑧𐑥𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯. 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑄𐑊𐑛-1880𐑟 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑩 𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑯 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒. 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑊𐑙 𐑩 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑹𐑱𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑊𐑙, 𐑣𐑰 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑛 𐑞 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘ Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑯 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘đ‘šđ‘„đ‘“đ‘€đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘œ. 𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑓 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕, Â·đ‘žđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1894. 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑣𐑧𐑯𐑟𐑊𐑒 ·𐑊𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑯, 𐑣𐑰 𐑕𐑷𐑑 𐑑 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕 𐑩 𐑯𐑿 đ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘–-đ‘€đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ą 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩, 𐑿𐑟𐑩𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟 đ‘đ‘°đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑧𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑱𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀, 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑯 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑕 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ. 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑻𐑀𐑊 đ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Ÿđ‘” đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑟𐑧𐑐𐑿𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 đ‘•đ‘œđ‘°đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑯 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ đ‘•đ‘©đ‘’đ‘•đ‘§đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑩𐑛 Â·đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ ·𐑚𐑞𐑚𐑟𐑩, 𐑞 ·𐑛đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ'𐑟 ·𐑛𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑄𐑩 𐑯 Â·đ‘•đ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘Œ 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑎𐑐𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑩.

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑝𐑿𐑟 𐑹𐑻 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑕; 𐑣𐑰 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑎𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑿𐑡𐑧𐑯𐑩𐑒𐑕 𐑯 𐑚𐑀𐑓𐑩𐑚𐑧𐑑 𐑼𐑩𐑓đ‘č𐑄, 𐑯 đ‘©đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘› đ‘đ‘šđ‘’đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑯 đ‘čđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯. 𐑣𐑰 𐑒đ‘č𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑳𐑯𐑐đ‘Ș𐑐𐑿𐑀𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑬𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑙 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑕đ‘Č𐑛𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 ·𐑹đ‘č 𐑹𐑟 𐑰𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑒𐑳𐑀𐑐𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀, 𐑯 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑩 𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯, đ‘’đ‘šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑩𐑕𐑊 đ‘Ș𐑯 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑐𐑮𐑕𐑑𐑱đ‘č đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘›. 𐑞𐑰𐑟 đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑯𐑮 𐑀𐑭𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑒𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑕𐑑𐑹𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑙 đ‘č 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑝𐑩𐑑𐑩 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑; 𐑞 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œ-𐑱đ‘č đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑷 𐑩 đ‘•đ‘œđ‘°đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑕 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 đ‘©đ‘—đ‘°đ‘đ‘› 𐑝đ‘ș𐑩𐑩𐑙 𐑛𐑩𐑜𐑼𐑰𐑟 𐑝 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕. 𐑩𐑯 1938 𐑣𐑰 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Č𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑰𐑯𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑓 𐑩 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑄𐑛 đ‘đ‘»đ‘ đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘„đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑓 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑰𐑝𐑛 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑩𐑒𐑚𐑛𐑩𐑄𐑊 ·𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑐𐑩𐑑đ‘Č𐑑 𐑓 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕 𐑯 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Š 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑖𐑑; 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑀𐑱𐑑 1920𐑟 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑀𐑞𐑥𐑀𐑊 𐑼𐑩𐑯𐑬𐑯𐑕𐑑 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑯 𐑕𐑐𐑮𐑒 đ‘“đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑝 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘đ‘• 𐑝 𐑞 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 𐑯 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑—𐑣𐑰 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑑 đ‘šđ‘›đ‘„đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑓 𐑚𐑮𐑔 ·𐑄𐑔𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑯𐑊 𐑯 ·𐑕𐑑𐑭𐑀𐑊𐑯. 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 𐑣𐑰 𐑄𐑱𐑛 đ‘“đ‘żđ‘Œ 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑛 𐑑 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑓𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 𐑖đ‘č𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑛𐑧𐑔, 𐑱𐑥𐑛 𐑯đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑩-𐑓đ‘č, 𐑣𐑹𐑝𐑩𐑙 𐑼𐑩𐑓𐑿𐑟𐑛 𐑷𐑀 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑 đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 𐑞 ·đ‘čđ‘›đ‘Œ 𐑝 ·𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑑 𐑩𐑯 1946.

𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑛𐑧𐑔 𐑕𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑯 𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘©đ‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘˜đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 𐑣𐑹𐑟 𐑝đ‘ș𐑩𐑛, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑟 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘œđ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑟𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑹𐑟 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑑 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ; 𐑚𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑕 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘’đ‘©đ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Č𐑟 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑝 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑯 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘–-đ‘€đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ą 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑𐑕. 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑛 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑣𐑹𐑟 đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ą 𐑹𐑟 𐑧𐑯𐑒𐑚𐑐𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘„đ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑩𐑙 𐑞𐑧𐑄.

·𐑀đ‘Č𐑓[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑻𐑀𐑊 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

Exterior of modest city house
·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑚𐑻𐑔𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑕 (2012 đ‘“đ‘Žđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘“). 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑭𐑒 𐑼𐑰𐑛𐑟 "·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷, đ‘·đ‘”đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑚đ‘č𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑣𐑬𐑕, 26 𐑥𐑩𐑀đ‘Č 1856".

𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑚đ‘č𐑯 𐑹𐑑 3 Â·đ‘łđ‘đ‘Œ ·𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑥𐑊 ·𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑑 [n 1] 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑎𐑚𐑧𐑀𐑎, 𐑩 đ‘€đ‘Žđ‘Œ-𐑄𐑊𐑛𐑩𐑀-𐑒𐑀𐑭𐑕 𐑐𐑾𐑑 𐑝 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯. [3] 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑞 đ‘˜đ‘łđ‘™đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑗đ‘Č𐑀𐑛 𐑯 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑕𐑳𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑒𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 (1814–1885) 𐑯 ·𐑀𐑔𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑛𐑩 Â·đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘” (·𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑊) ·𐑖𐑷( 𐑯𐑱 Â·đ‘œđ‘»đ‘€đ‘Š; 1830–1913). 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘§đ‘€đ‘›đ‘Œ đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 ·𐑀𐑔𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑛𐑩 (·𐑀𐑔𐑕𐑊) ·𐑓𐑟𐑭𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕 (1853–1920) 𐑯 Â·đ‘§đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Œ Â·đ‘šđ‘œđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘• (1855–1876). 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑓𐑚𐑄𐑊𐑀𐑊 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑝 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘– 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑯 𐑚𐑊𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙𐑛 𐑑 𐑞 𐑛đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑯𐑑 ·𐑐𐑟đ‘Ș𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑 ·𐑩𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑊 𐑩𐑯 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›; [n 2] ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑒𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑓𐑧𐑒𐑗𐑔𐑩𐑀 𐑚𐑀𐑒𐑩𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑒, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑞 𐑓𐑚𐑄𐑊𐑀𐑊'𐑟 𐑀𐑧𐑕 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀 đ‘„đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. [4] 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Ÿ đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑩 𐑕đ‘Čđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘€ đ‘•đ‘»đ‘đ‘Šđ‘•, 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑓 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑻𐑀𐑊 1850𐑟; 𐑞đ‘șđ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑣𐑰 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑑 đ‘Šđ‘źđ‘§đ‘œđ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑒đ‘č𐑯 𐑄𐑻𐑗𐑩𐑯𐑑. [3] 𐑩𐑯 1852 𐑣𐑰 𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑛 ·𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑊 Â·đ‘œđ‘»đ‘€đ‘Š; 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑝𐑿 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Œ ·𐑄đ‘Č𐑒𐑩𐑀 ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛 𐑖𐑰 𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑛 𐑑 𐑊𐑕𐑒𐑱𐑐 𐑩 𐑑𐑊𐑟𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘±đ‘‘-𐑭𐑯𐑑. [5] 𐑩𐑓, 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛 𐑯 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ đ‘•đ‘Œđ‘„đ‘Č𐑟, ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡'đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘„đ‘Žđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑄𐑻𐑕𐑊𐑯đ‘ș𐑩, 𐑞𐑧𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑩𐑐𐑶𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛, 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑊 𐑚𐑟𐑷𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑝 𐑣𐑻 𐑓𐑚𐑄𐑊𐑀𐑊'𐑟 𐑄𐑳𐑯𐑊. [6] 𐑖𐑰 𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑑 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑟 𐑣𐑻 𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑓𐑧𐑒𐑗𐑔𐑩𐑀 𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑟𐑳𐑙𐑒𐑩𐑯 đ‘Łđ‘łđ‘Ÿđ‘šđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑣𐑔𐑄 𐑖𐑰 𐑖đ‘ș𐑛 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑕𐑳𐑯 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 𐑝 "𐑖𐑹𐑚𐑩-𐑥𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑰𐑀 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Š". [5]

𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑚𐑻𐑔, 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘„đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑒𐑀𐑎𐑕 𐑑 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑀𐑰, 𐑩 𐑓𐑀𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑶𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘˜đ‘Œ 𐑹𐑧𐑀 𐑯𐑮𐑯 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯'𐑟 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ đ‘•đ‘»đ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ. 𐑖𐑷 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑩 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑀𐑰 𐑄đ‘Č𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑚đ‘Č𐑩𐑀đ‘Ș𐑥𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘“đ‘­đ‘žđ‘Œ; [7] 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑩𐑟 𐑯𐑮 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑕 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑕𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 𐑀đ‘Č𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑣𐑫𐑛 𐑝 𐑞𐑩𐑕. [8] [9] [10] [11] 𐑞 𐑘𐑳𐑙 ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘•đ‘łđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑯𐑮 𐑣𐑞𐑖𐑯𐑩𐑕 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘„đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑣𐑰 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑻 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘• 𐑯 𐑀𐑚𐑒 𐑝 𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑻𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑛𐑰𐑐𐑀𐑊. [12] 𐑣𐑰 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑕đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑣𐑬𐑕. 𐑀𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘łđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑯 đ‘‘đ‘°đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑕𐑩𐑙𐑩𐑙; ·𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑊 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑩 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯 𐑄𐑧𐑑𐑕𐑎-𐑕𐑩𐑐𐑟𐑭𐑯𐑎 đ‘đ‘¶đ‘• 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑄𐑳𐑗 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑀𐑰'𐑟 𐑳𐑯đ‘č𐑔𐑩𐑛đ‘Ș𐑒𐑕 𐑄𐑧𐑔𐑩𐑛 𐑝 đ‘đ‘Žđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯. 𐑞 Â·đ‘–đ‘·đ‘Ÿ' 𐑣𐑬𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑓𐑟𐑰𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘œđ‘šđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. [3]

𐑩𐑯 1862, ·𐑀𐑰 𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘–đ‘·đ‘Ÿ đ‘©đ‘œđ‘źđ‘°đ‘› 𐑑 𐑖đ‘ș 𐑩 𐑣𐑬𐑕, 𐑯𐑮. 1 𐑣𐑹𐑗 ·𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑑, 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑐𐑾𐑑 𐑝 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯, 𐑯 𐑩 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑑𐑩𐑡 đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑛𐑭𐑀𐑒𐑊 ·𐑣𐑊𐑀, đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘«đ‘’đ‘Šđ‘™ ·𐑒𐑊𐑀𐑀đ‘Č𐑯𐑩 ·𐑚𐑱. [13] 𐑖𐑷, 𐑩 𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑝 𐑚𐑶, 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑞 𐑀𐑧𐑕 đ‘•đ‘©đ‘€đ‘”đ‘šđ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘• 𐑐𐑾𐑑𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑖đ‘Ș𐑒𐑩𐑙 𐑯 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑩𐑙, 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Łđ‘šđ‘đ‘œ 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑑𐑩𐑡. 𐑀𐑰'𐑟 𐑕𐑑𐑿𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 đ‘œđ‘±đ‘ 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑚𐑫𐑒𐑕, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑞 𐑘𐑳𐑙 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑼𐑧𐑛 đ‘šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘€đ‘Š; [14] 𐑞𐑳𐑕, 𐑹𐑟 𐑹𐑧𐑀 𐑹𐑟 đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑩 𐑔𐑳𐑼𐑮 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑥 𐑝 𐑒đ‘č𐑩𐑀 𐑯 đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕, 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 đ‘“đ‘©đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘œ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑱đ‘Č𐑛 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑄 𐑝 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘—đ‘Œ. [15]

𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 1865 𐑯 1871, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑓đ‘č đ‘•đ‘’đ‘”đ‘€đ‘Ÿ, 𐑷𐑀 𐑝 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛. [16] [n 3] 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀𐑚𐑶 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑀𐑔𐑠𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑓đ‘č𐑄𐑩𐑀 𐑧𐑥𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯: "đ‘•đ‘’đ‘”đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 đ‘•đ‘’đ‘”đ‘€đ‘„đ‘­đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ", 𐑣𐑰 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑼𐑮𐑑, 𐑹𐑻 "đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 đ‘‘đ‘»đ‘Żđ‘’đ‘°đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑗𐑊𐑀𐑛𐑟𐑩𐑯 𐑾 𐑒𐑧𐑐𐑑 𐑑 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑝𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑞𐑧𐑄 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑻𐑚𐑊𐑙 𐑯 đ‘–đ‘šđ‘đ‘Œđ‘Žđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑐đ‘ș𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕." [17] 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Žđ‘šđ‘Œ 1871 𐑣𐑰 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑 𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀 𐑑 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑩 đ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘Żđ‘œ 𐑒𐑀𐑻𐑒 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑓𐑻𐑄 𐑝 𐑀𐑚𐑯𐑛 𐑱𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕, 𐑱đ‘ș 𐑣𐑰 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑑 𐑣𐑾𐑛, 𐑯 𐑒𐑹𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑼𐑮𐑟 𐑑 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑣𐑧𐑛 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘–đ‘œ. [7] đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞𐑩𐑕 đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘›, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯𐑮𐑯 𐑹𐑟 "·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑖𐑷"; đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 1876, 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑼đ‘Ș𐑐𐑑 𐑞 "·𐑥đ‘č𐑡" 𐑯 𐑕𐑑đ‘Č𐑀𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 "·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷". [n 4]

𐑩𐑯 𐑥𐑔𐑯 1873, ·𐑀𐑰 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑓 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑯 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑛. 𐑩 𐑓đ‘č𐑑𐑯đ‘Č𐑑 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ, ·𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑊 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄; 𐑞 𐑑𐑔 đ‘œđ‘»đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑛 𐑣𐑻. [7] [n 5] ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑱đ‘Č 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘„đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑛 ·𐑀𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑞𐑬𐑑 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œ'𐑟 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑚𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑚𐑿𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑑 𐑣𐑏𐑕𐑣𐑎𐑀𐑛 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑚𐑟𐑎𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑳𐑐. [21] 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘“đ‘­đ‘žđ‘Œ, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑓 𐑞 𐑚𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑝 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑣𐑬𐑕 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑑𐑰𐑗𐑩𐑙 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 𐑑 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑞 𐑐𐑩𐑹𐑯𐑮. [7]

·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑻𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑯 1876 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑀𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘„đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 Â·đ‘šđ‘œđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘• 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑛đ‘Č𐑩𐑙 𐑝 𐑑𐑿𐑚𐑻𐑒𐑿𐑀𐑎𐑕𐑊𐑕. 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑩𐑟đ‘Č𐑯@𐑼𐑰𐑕đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 𐑀𐑚𐑯𐑛 𐑱𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕, 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑄𐑞𐑗 đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘šđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘› 𐑑 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› 𐑑 𐑥𐑶𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘„đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑯 ·𐑀𐑔𐑕𐑊 𐑹𐑑 Â·đ‘šđ‘œđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘•'đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘“đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€. 𐑣𐑰 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Ż đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘đ‘› 𐑩𐑯 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›, 𐑯 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑝𐑩𐑟𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑓 𐑑𐑱𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩-𐑯đ‘Č𐑯 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ. [3]

young man with faint, wispy beard
𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑯 1879

·𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑼𐑩𐑓𐑿𐑟𐑛 𐑑 𐑕𐑰𐑒 𐑒𐑀𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑶𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘„đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑩𐑀𐑏𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑑 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑓𐑼𐑰 𐑝 𐑗𐑾𐑡 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑻 𐑣𐑬𐑕 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑏𐑔 Â·đ‘’đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘™đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑣𐑰 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘žđ‘©đ‘€đ‘§đ‘• 𐑯𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑳𐑄. 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑩𐑚𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑩 𐑑𐑰𐑯𐑱𐑥 𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑑 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑩 đ‘đ‘±đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑯 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑘𐑧𐑑 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑝 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑓 𐑩 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘™, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 ·𐑀𐑰 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑩 𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑓 𐑣𐑊𐑄, 𐑜𐑮𐑕𐑑-𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑀𐑩𐑄 𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œ ·𐑀𐑰'𐑟 𐑯𐑱𐑄 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑹𐑰𐑒𐑀𐑊, 𐑞 ·𐑣đ‘č𐑯𐑩𐑑. [3] 𐑀𐑰'𐑟 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑊 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘œđ‘œđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞đ‘ș đ‘„đ‘”đ‘ 𐑑 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯. [n 6] ·𐑖𐑷 𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑑𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑑𐑹𐑒𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑀𐑰, 𐑣𐑔 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑟𐑊𐑣𐑻𐑕𐑩𐑀 đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑯 𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑠𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Œ. [22] [n 7]

Â·đ‘Šđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘”đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Š ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘›đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑑 𐑩𐑐𐑀đ‘Č𐑩𐑙 𐑓 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑕 𐑡đ‘Ș𐑚𐑟. 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘„ 𐑣𐑰 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑩 đ‘źđ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œ'𐑟 𐑐𐑭𐑕 𐑓 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿđ‘„ ·𐑟𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑙 ·𐑟𐑔𐑄 (𐑞 𐑓đ‘čđ‘źđ‘łđ‘Żđ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑚𐑼đ‘ș𐑩) 𐑯 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 đ‘ąđ‘°đ‘’đ‘›đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑞đ‘ș, 𐑼𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑯 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙. [26] 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑑 𐑹𐑑 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩, 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑳𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1878, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 𐑚𐑀𐑚𐑙𐑒-đ‘đ‘»đ‘• 𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑐𐑰𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑩 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑕 𐑔𐑰𐑄. 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑚𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑳𐑯𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑖𐑑, 𐑹𐑟 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑑𐑼đ‘Č 𐑹𐑑 𐑩 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑰𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€, Â·đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘©đ‘—đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š (1879), 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑑𐑔 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘Šđ‘„ 𐑑 𐑩𐑐𐑰𐑀 𐑑 đ‘đ‘łđ‘šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 đ‘©đ‘đ‘œ 𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 𐑞 1930𐑟. [7] 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑶𐑛 𐑚𐑟𐑰𐑓𐑀𐑊 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑯𐑿𐑀𐑊 𐑓đ‘č𐑄𐑛 ·𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑩𐑯 ·𐑑𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑓𐑎𐑯 ·𐑒𐑳𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑯𐑊 𐑩𐑯 1879–80, 𐑯 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 đ‘©đ‘—đ‘°đ‘đ‘› 𐑼𐑹𐑐𐑩𐑛 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑯. 𐑯𐑳𐑯𐑞𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑕, 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑩𐑯 𐑓𐑻𐑄 𐑄𐑻𐑥𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑼đ‘Čđ‘đ‘©đ‘€ ·𐑚𐑧𐑀 ·𐑑𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑓𐑎𐑯 ·𐑒𐑳𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑯𐑊, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑗𐑮𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑑 𐑕𐑰𐑒 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑯𐑿 đ‘čđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż. [27] 𐑞đ‘șđ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑣𐑰 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘żđ‘› 𐑩 𐑓𐑫𐑀-𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘œ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑯 đ‘·đ‘”đ‘Œ. [28]

𐑓 𐑞 𐑯𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑑 𐑓đ‘č đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ ·𐑖𐑷 𐑄𐑱𐑛 𐑩 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙, 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑛đ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘„đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ. [29] 𐑩𐑯 1881, 𐑓 𐑞 𐑕𐑱𐑒 𐑝 𐑩𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑄𐑊, 𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑟𐑰𐑕𐑊𐑙𐑀𐑊 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑐𐑩𐑀, 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑩 𐑝𐑧𐑡𐑩𐑑đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż. [7] 𐑣𐑰 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘” 𐑩 đ‘šđ‘œđ‘› 𐑑 𐑣đ‘Č𐑛 𐑩 𐑓𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑕𐑒𐑾 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑕𐑄𐑷𐑀𐑐đ‘Ș𐑒𐑕. [30] [n 8] 𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑹𐑐𐑩𐑛 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑑𐑔 𐑄đ‘č 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ: 𐑞 ·𐑊𐑟𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 ·𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 (1880) 𐑯 Â·đ‘€đ‘łđ‘ ·𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑞 ·𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑕 (1881), 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑯đ‘Čđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑩 đ‘đ‘łđ‘šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘Œ; 𐑰𐑗 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘•đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑩 𐑓𐑿 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘°đ‘Ż đ‘Źđ‘Œ ·𐑒đ‘čđ‘Żđ‘Œ. [33] [n 9]

𐑩𐑯 1880 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑙 đ‘„đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊, đ‘Łđ‘”đ‘Ÿ đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑑 "𐑕𐑻𐑗 𐑓 𐑑𐑟𐑔𐑔 𐑩𐑯 𐑷𐑀 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑞 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 𐑣𐑿𐑄𐑩𐑯 𐑟𐑱𐑕". [36] đ‘Łđ‘œ 𐑣𐑰 𐑄𐑧𐑑 ·𐑕𐑊𐑛𐑯𐑊 ·𐑹𐑧𐑚, 𐑩 đ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘Żđ‘œ đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘€ đ‘•đ‘»đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑣𐑔, 𐑀đ‘Č𐑒 ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑚𐑩𐑟𐑩 𐑧𐑥𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓. 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑑 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘• 𐑝 𐑕𐑑đ‘Č𐑀 𐑯 đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘, 𐑞 𐑑𐑔 𐑒𐑹𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘’đ‘©đ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑒𐑱đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑰𐑗 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑯 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘‘ 𐑩 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 𐑓𐑼𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑖𐑩𐑐. 𐑖𐑷 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑟𐑊𐑓𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛: "𐑿 𐑯𐑿 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩𐑔𐑩𐑙 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘Č 𐑛𐑩𐑛𐑯'𐑑 𐑯𐑮 𐑯 đ‘Č 𐑯𐑿 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩𐑔𐑩𐑙 𐑿 𐑛𐑩𐑛𐑯'𐑑 𐑯𐑮... 𐑱𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩𐑔𐑩𐑙 𐑑 𐑀𐑻𐑯 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑱𐑳𐑯 đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑯 đ‘šđ‘źđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯𐑳𐑓 𐑑 𐑛𐑔 𐑩𐑑". [37]

Victorian photograph of man in early middle age, with centre-parted hair and a walrus moustache
Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ Â·đ‘žđ‘—đ‘Œ, 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘°đ‘œ 𐑯 đ‘šđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘“đ‘šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷

·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑯𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑑 𐑹𐑑 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 𐑱𐑳𐑯-𐑹𐑒𐑑 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑀𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑓𐑟𐑧𐑯𐑗, ·𐑳𐑯 ·𐑐𐑧𐑑𐑊 ·𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄, 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1884 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑑đ‘Č𐑄. [38] 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑱𐑄 đ‘˜đ‘œ 𐑞 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ Â·đ‘žđ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑕𐑩𐑥𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘šđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑐𐑀đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘žđ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑛đ‘Č𐑩𐑀đ‘Ș𐑜 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷. [39] 𐑞 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑 đ‘“đ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘›, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑑 𐑞 𐑛𐑼𐑭𐑓𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑞 𐑚𐑱𐑕𐑊𐑕 𐑝 Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ' Â·đ‘Łđ‘Źđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 1892, [40] 𐑯 𐑞 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 Â·đ‘žđ‘—đ‘Œ đ‘đ‘źđ‘”đ‘đ‘› 𐑝 𐑊𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑕 đ‘đ‘šđ‘€đ‘ż 𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘œ. [41]

𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑹𐑱𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑊𐑙: Â·đ‘„đ‘žđ‘’đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

đ‘Ș𐑯 5 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1882 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩 𐑄𐑰𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑩𐑄đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘€ ·𐑣𐑷𐑀, ·𐑓𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑙𐑛𐑩𐑯, 𐑩𐑛𐑟𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑑 ·𐑣𐑧𐑯𐑟𐑊 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡. [42] 𐑖𐑷 𐑞𐑧𐑯 𐑼𐑧𐑛 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡'đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑫𐑒 ·𐑐𐑟đ‘Ș𐑜𐑼𐑧𐑕 𐑯 ·𐑐đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Š, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑩𐑹𐑱𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑰𐑒𐑩𐑯đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑒𐑕. [43] 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑙 đ‘„đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 ·𐑛𐑧𐑄𐑩𐑒𐑟𐑚𐑑𐑊𐑒 Â·đ‘“đ‘§đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż (SDF), 𐑱đ‘ș 𐑣𐑰 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘’đ‘łđ‘đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑞 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙𐑟 𐑝 ·𐑒𐑞𐑀 ·𐑄𐑞𐑒𐑕, 𐑯 𐑞đ‘șđ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑄𐑳𐑗 𐑝 1883 𐑼𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑙 ·𐑛𐑭𐑕 ·𐑒𐑭𐑐𐑊𐑑𐑭𐑀. 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 SDF'𐑟 đ‘“đ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œ, H. M. ·𐑣𐑊𐑯𐑛𐑄𐑩𐑯, 𐑣𐑔𐑄 𐑣𐑰 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑒𐑟𐑚𐑑𐑊𐑒, 𐑊𐑀-đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑯 𐑀𐑚𐑒𐑊𐑙 đ‘€đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑒𐑱đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. 𐑖𐑷 𐑛𐑏𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑩𐑚𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑝 𐑞 SDF 𐑑 𐑣𐑞𐑯𐑩𐑕 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑊𐑙 đ‘’đ‘€đ‘­đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑝 𐑟𐑚𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑯 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑥𐑶𐑯 𐑩𐑑—𐑣𐑰 𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑓𐑻𐑛, 𐑣𐑰 𐑕𐑧𐑛, 𐑑 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑗𐑔𐑩𐑀 đ‘°đ‘’đ‘ąđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ. [44]

đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑼𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑩 𐑑𐑼𐑹𐑒𐑑, 𐑱đ‘Č 𐑾 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 Â·đ‘đ‘«đ‘Œ?, 𐑩𐑖𐑿𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑟𐑰𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑓đ‘č𐑄𐑛 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊, [n 10] ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑑 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊'𐑟 𐑯𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑑 đ‘šđ‘›đ‘đ‘»đ‘‘đ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑄𐑰𐑑𐑊𐑙, đ‘Ș𐑯 16 𐑄𐑱 1884. [46] 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ, [46] 𐑯 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑞 đ‘˜đ‘œ'𐑟 𐑧𐑯𐑛 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Č𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑓𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑎, 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑹𐑟 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑 𐑯𐑮. 2. [47] 𐑣𐑰 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑛 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊'𐑟 𐑩𐑜𐑟𐑧𐑒𐑿𐑑𐑩𐑝 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑩𐑯 𐑡𐑹𐑯𐑿đ‘ș𐑩 1885, 𐑯 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘˜đ‘œ 𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑟𐑔𐑑𐑩𐑛 ·𐑹𐑧𐑚 𐑯 𐑷𐑀𐑕𐑎 ·𐑚𐑯𐑊 Â·đ‘šđ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘, 𐑩 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯 đ‘čđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Œ. [46]

"𐑞 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑕𐑑𐑼đ‘Č𐑒𐑩𐑙 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘łđ‘€đ‘‘ 𐑝 đ‘Źđ‘Œ đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑄 𐑝 𐑓𐑞𐑄𐑊𐑙 𐑬𐑑 𐑞 𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 ·𐑀𐑚𐑯𐑛 𐑯 𐑒𐑚𐑐𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑑 𐑐𐑼đ‘Čđ‘đ‘©đ‘‘ đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑹𐑟 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑞 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 𐑣đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑đ‘Č𐑀 đ‘’đ‘€đ‘­đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑀𐑞𐑥 𐑹𐑐𐑩𐑑đ‘Č𐑑𐑕 𐑯 𐑯𐑮 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑑 𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑄, 𐑯 𐑀𐑞𐑥 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑯𐑮 𐑹𐑐𐑩𐑑đ‘Č𐑑𐑕 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ"

·𐑖𐑷, Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑 𐑯𐑮. 2: 𐑩 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑓𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑎 (1884). [48]

𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 1885 𐑑 1889 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑓đ‘č𐑑𐑯đ‘Č𐑑𐑀𐑊 đ‘„đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 ·𐑰𐑒𐑩𐑯đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑒 ·𐑩𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑊𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯; 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟, ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛 đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘»đ‘đ‘Ÿ, "𐑞 𐑒𐑀𐑎𐑕𐑩𐑕𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑑 đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š 𐑧𐑥𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯." 𐑞𐑩𐑕 đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘• 𐑗𐑱𐑯𐑥𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ; 𐑣𐑰 đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘› 𐑩𐑹𐑱 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 Â·đ‘„đ‘žđ‘’đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑐đ‘Ș𐑕𐑩𐑀 𐑝 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. [49] 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1886–87 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑛𐑊𐑚𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑊𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑱𐑕 đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘’đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑹𐑟 đ‘šđ‘›đ‘đ‘©đ‘’đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑 ·𐑹𐑊𐑀𐑕𐑩𐑯, Â·đ‘šđ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑯 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑛 𐑞 𐑄𐑩𐑥đ‘č𐑩𐑑𐑩 𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑩𐑐𐑟𐑎𐑗. [49] đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩 𐑟𐑚𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘łđ‘€đ‘œđ‘ž ·𐑕𐑒𐑹đ‘ș 𐑩𐑛𐑟𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘šđ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑝đ‘Č𐑩𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑚𐑟𐑎𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑳𐑐 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑷𐑔đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑟 đ‘Ș𐑯 13 đ‘Żđ‘Žđ‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1887( "𐑚𐑀𐑳𐑛𐑊 𐑕𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑱"), ·𐑖𐑷 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑝 𐑞 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊 𐑝 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑑 𐑗𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑥 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑰𐑕 đ‘đ‘Źđ‘Œ. [50] 𐑞đ‘șđ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑣𐑰 𐑀𐑞𐑥𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑝 "𐑐𐑻𐑄𐑊𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯" 𐑹𐑟 đ‘šđ‘›đ‘đ‘©đ‘’đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑹𐑧𐑚: 𐑞 𐑯𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱đ‘ș𐑚đ‘Č đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑒𐑫𐑛 𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑚𐑰 đ‘©đ‘—đ‘°đ‘đ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑐𐑰𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑯 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 𐑩𐑜𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑐𐑾𐑑𐑩𐑟. [51]

𐑔𐑟𐑔𐑏𐑑 𐑞 1880𐑟 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑕𐑄𐑷𐑀, 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑄𐑧𐑕𐑊𐑥 𐑝 𐑄đ‘Șđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑓𐑟𐑰𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑳𐑯𐑣𐑻𐑛 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑄đ‘č 𐑕𐑑𐑼đ‘Č𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘đ‘¶đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ. [52] 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑐𐑼𐑮𐑓đ‘Č𐑀 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘źđ‘±đ‘Ÿđ‘› 𐑩𐑯 1889 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż Â·đ‘§đ‘•đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑔 𐑷𐑀𐑕𐑎 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Č𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑑𐑔 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘§đ‘•đ‘±đ‘Ÿ. 𐑞 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑝 𐑞𐑰𐑟, "đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż", đ‘›đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑞 𐑒𐑱𐑕 𐑓 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 𐑐𐑻𐑄𐑊𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯, 𐑩𐑕𐑻𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑞𐑹𐑑 "𐑞 𐑯𐑩𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑩 𐑓 𐑒𐑷𐑖𐑩𐑕 𐑯 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑗𐑱𐑯𐑥 𐑄𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑚𐑰 đ‘Șđ‘šđ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘• 𐑑 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩𐑱𐑳𐑯". [53] 𐑩𐑯 1890 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 ·𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑 𐑯𐑮. 13, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑩𐑟, [47] 𐑩 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 𐑩𐑯 đ‘»đ‘€đ‘œ 𐑑𐑼𐑹𐑒𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑 ·𐑹𐑊𐑀𐑕𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑛𐑩𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑩𐑯 đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘’đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’ đ‘‘đ‘»đ‘„đ‘Ÿ. [54] 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑯𐑿 đ‘đ‘»đ‘ đ‘©đ‘Ż, đ‘źđ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 đ‘©đ‘–đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑞𐑹𐑑 "đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑒𐑹𐑯 𐑚𐑰 𐑚𐑟𐑷𐑑 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑐𐑻𐑓𐑊𐑒𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑑𐑿𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Œ 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑛𐑧𐑄𐑩𐑒𐑟𐑚𐑑𐑊𐑒 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ". [55]

𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑯 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

𐑞 𐑄𐑊𐑛-1880𐑟 𐑄𐑞𐑒𐑑 𐑩 𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑐𐑶𐑯𐑑 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓, 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑐𐑻𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑯 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑊: 𐑣𐑰 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š, 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑑𐑔 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑, 𐑯 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘œ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒. [56] 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑑𐑱𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩-𐑯đ‘Č𐑯𐑔 𐑚𐑻𐑔𐑛𐑱, 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑖đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œđ‘’đ‘łđ‘„ 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑥𐑱𐑯 (·𐑥𐑧𐑯𐑊) Â·đ‘đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑩 𐑱𐑩𐑛𐑮 𐑕𐑳𐑄 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘•đ‘°đ‘Żđ‘œ. [57] 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑩𐑓đ‘ș 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑛, 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 đ‘·đ‘€đ‘ąđ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑄𐑔𐑞𐑀𐑊, 𐑓 𐑱𐑑 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ. 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑕 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 𐑣𐑹𐑟 đ‘’đ‘·đ‘Ÿđ‘› 𐑄𐑳𐑗 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑿𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑯 𐑛𐑊𐑚𐑱𐑑 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑩𐑟 𐑩 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑕 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐 𐑱𐑩𐑞 Â·đ‘đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑿 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑯-𐑐𐑀𐑩𐑑đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑒 𐑟𐑎𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑒 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘±đ‘Ÿđ‘Ș𐑯𐑟. [n 11]

𐑞 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ, 𐑯đ‘Čđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑻𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀, 𐑹𐑻 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑑𐑔 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘§đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘• 𐑩𐑯 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑠𐑭𐑯𐑟𐑩: ·𐑒𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑀 ·𐑚đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑯'𐑟 ·𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1882–83, 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑳𐑯𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 ·𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑, 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑳𐑯 𐑯 𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯 1883. 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘•đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑑𐑩𐑛𐑱 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘°đ‘Ż 𐑩𐑯 1884, 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑩𐑑 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 đ‘©đ‘đ‘œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑓đ‘č𐑄 𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 1887. ·𐑒𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑀 ·𐑚đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑯 đ‘©đ‘đ‘œđ‘› 𐑩𐑯 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘°đ‘Ż 𐑯 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑓đ‘č𐑄 𐑩𐑯 1886. [7]

Two elderly, bushily bearded, Victorian men
Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ ·𐑄đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑕 (𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑) 𐑯 ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑟𐑳𐑕𐑒𐑊𐑯: 𐑊𐑄𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘“đ‘€đ‘”đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑧𐑕𐑔𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑝𐑿𐑟

𐑩𐑯 1884 𐑯 1885, 𐑔𐑟𐑔 𐑞 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑝 Â·đ‘žđ‘—đ‘Œ, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘œđ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘› 𐑑 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑯 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑓 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. 𐑱𐑧𐑯 Â·đ‘žđ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑼𐑩𐑟đ‘Č𐑯@𐑼𐑰𐑕đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑹𐑟 𐑾𐑑 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 𐑩𐑯 1886 𐑣𐑰 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑓 ·𐑖𐑷. [62] 𐑞 𐑑𐑔 đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘˜đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 𐑾𐑑 𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 đ‘Łđ‘”đ‘Ÿ 𐑝𐑿𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑛𐑄đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘› 𐑹𐑻 Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ ·𐑄đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑕 𐑯 ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑟𐑳𐑕𐑒𐑊𐑯, 𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑕𐑷𐑑 𐑑 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑐𐑼𐑰𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„đ‘Ÿ. [62] 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑧𐑄𐑓𐑩𐑕𐑊𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑄đ‘č𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑩𐑐𐑰𐑀𐑛 𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑣𐑔 𐑟𐑊𐑥𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑾𐑑 𐑓 𐑾𐑑'𐑕 𐑕𐑱𐑒, 𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑷𐑀 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘±đ‘‘ 𐑾𐑑 𐑄𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑛đ‘Č𐑛𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑒. [63]

𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑝đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘• 𐑼𐑩𐑝𐑿𐑩𐑙 𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑝𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 1880𐑟 𐑯 1890𐑟 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑯𐑮𐑯. [64] đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘•đ‘»đ‘đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑹𐑟 𐑛𐑧𐑐𐑿𐑑𐑩 𐑩𐑯 1888, 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑑𐑞 𐑩𐑯 𐑓𐑧𐑚𐑟𐑔đ‘ș𐑩 1889, 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑐𐑧𐑯-𐑯𐑱𐑄 ·𐑒đ‘č𐑯𐑮 𐑛đ‘Č ·𐑚𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑎. [65] [n 12] 𐑩𐑯 𐑄𐑱 1890 𐑣𐑰 đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘› 𐑚𐑹𐑒 𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛, 𐑱đ‘ș 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑩 𐑹𐑰𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑀𐑩𐑄 𐑹𐑟 "G.B.S." 𐑓 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑓đ‘č đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ. 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 2016 đ‘đ‘»đ‘ đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘œđ‘źđ‘Žđ‘ ·𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯đ‘ș𐑩 𐑝 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑯 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, ·𐑟đ‘Șđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘ Â·đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑕, "𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙𐑟 đ‘Ș𐑯 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑕𐑑𐑹𐑯𐑛 𐑩𐑀𐑎𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞đ‘ș đ‘„đ‘­đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑝 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘– 𐑯 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘„đ‘đ‘łđ‘€đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑟𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑚𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊." [67] 𐑖𐑷 𐑕𐑰𐑕𐑑 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑩 đ‘•đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘› đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑩𐑯 đ‘·đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ 1894, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑠𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘žđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑 𐑔𐑟𐑔𐑏𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘œ, 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑀𐑭𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑯 1950. [68]

𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 1895 𐑑 1898, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑞 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑓 𐑞 đ‘•đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘›đ‘± Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż, 𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑼𐑧𐑯𐑛 ·𐑓𐑟𐑚𐑙𐑒 ·𐑣𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑕. 𐑹𐑟 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛, 𐑣𐑰 𐑿𐑟𐑛 𐑞 𐑚đ‘Č-𐑀đ‘Č𐑯 "G.B.S." 𐑣𐑰 𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑐𐑱𐑯𐑛 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑞 𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑓𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑀 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑐đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘źđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 𐑓 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 đ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘€ đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑑𐑟𐑔 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑊𐑄𐑚𐑞𐑒𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑕𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘œ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑: "đ‘Č 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑟𐑚𐑖𐑀𐑊 𐑑𐑱𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑳𐑐 𐑞 𐑒𐑱𐑕; 𐑯 đ‘źđ‘­đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑀𐑧𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑚𐑐𐑕 đ‘Č đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘żđ‘“đ‘šđ‘’đ‘—đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑞 đ‘§đ‘đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•". [7]

𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑 𐑯 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯: 1890𐑟[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑿𐑟𐑩𐑙 𐑞 𐑐𐑀đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 𐑩𐑚đ‘č𐑑𐑩𐑛 1884 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘šđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑱𐑩𐑞 Â·đ‘žđ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑰𐑑 Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ' Â·đ‘Łđ‘Źđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ÿ (𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑛 𐑑𐑱đ‘Č𐑕 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯, 𐑩𐑯 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1892), ·𐑖𐑷 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑛 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ. 𐑹𐑑 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑄𐑱𐑛 𐑕𐑀𐑎 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑜𐑼𐑧𐑕; 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Œ, 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1893 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 1898, 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑑 𐑹𐑱𐑑 𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 1905 𐑓 𐑩 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯. đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š, Â·đ‘„đ‘•đ‘Ÿ ·𐑹đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯'𐑟 ·𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯 (1893) 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑓đ‘Č𐑝 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑯 𐑯đ‘Č𐑯 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑼𐑰𐑗𐑩𐑙 𐑞 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥. [n 13]

Man in early middle age, with full beard
·𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑯 1894 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑝 Â·đ‘žđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯

·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑑 𐑚𐑼𐑩𐑙 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑚𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 Â·đ‘žđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 (1894), 𐑩 𐑄đ‘Ș𐑒- Â·đ‘źđ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑛𐑊 đ‘•đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑙 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 đ‘€đ‘łđ‘, 𐑄𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑑đ‘ș𐑩 đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑒𐑀𐑭𐑕. [7] 𐑞 𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑕 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Ș𐑙, 𐑯 đ‘©đ‘’đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘› ·𐑖𐑷 𐑝 𐑄𐑰𐑛𐑊đ‘Ș𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩, [70] đ‘•đ‘Żđ‘œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑹𐑑 đ‘Łđ‘§đ‘źđ‘Žđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 đ‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, [71] 𐑣𐑞𐑑𐑀𐑩𐑕 đ‘’đ‘€đ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘•, [72] 𐑯 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑐𐑩𐑩𐑙 W. 𐑟. Â·đ‘œđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘'𐑟 𐑕𐑑đ‘Č𐑀. [70] [n 14] 𐑞 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒 𐑑𐑫𐑒 𐑩 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑝𐑿, 𐑯 𐑞 𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑥𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑛 𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑩 𐑄𐑚𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑱 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘čđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑄𐑰𐑑 𐑞 𐑛𐑊𐑄𐑭𐑯𐑛. [74] 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑼𐑹𐑯 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑱𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀 𐑑 𐑥𐑩𐑀đ‘Č, đ‘‘đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑞 𐑐𐑼đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑛 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒. [73] 𐑩𐑑 𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄£341 𐑩𐑯 đ‘źđ‘¶đ‘©đ‘€đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 đ‘˜đ‘œ, 𐑩 𐑕𐑩𐑓𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑕𐑳𐑄 𐑑 𐑊𐑯𐑱𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑑 𐑜𐑩𐑝 𐑳𐑐 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘•đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘› 𐑐𐑮𐑕𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒. [75] 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑞 𐑒𐑭𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 ·𐑓𐑀đ‘č𐑩𐑯𐑕 ·𐑓𐑞𐑟, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑣𐑔𐑄 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑩 𐑟𐑎𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 1890 𐑯 1894, 𐑄𐑳𐑗 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑥𐑧𐑯𐑊 Â·đ‘đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ż. [76]

𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕 𐑝 Â·đ‘žđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑟𐑧𐑐𐑀𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛. 𐑒𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑛𐑩, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑩 𐑘𐑳𐑙 𐑹𐑫𐑄𐑩𐑯 𐑄𐑱𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑟𐑎𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑗𐑶𐑕 𐑓 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘źđ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑰𐑝𐑛 𐑩 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘č𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑏𐑔 Â·đ‘–đ‘°đ‘€đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 1895; [77] 𐑩𐑯 1897 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑀𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 Â·đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘đ‘Žđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑛𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑊 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑩 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑊𐑙 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑒𐑟𐑶𐑛𐑩𐑯. [78] 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 1890𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 đ‘šđ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑯𐑮𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑧𐑕𐑑 ·𐑧𐑯𐑛 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥; 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 𐑩𐑯 1897, 𐑱𐑧𐑯 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘› ·𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑕𐑓𐑰𐑀𐑛'𐑟 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 𐑣𐑩𐑕𐑑đ‘č𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑄𐑧𐑀𐑩𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩 𐑞 Â·đ‘›đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€'𐑟 ·𐑛𐑊𐑕đ‘Č𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑞 đ‘·đ‘”đ‘Œ 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯£2,000 𐑩𐑯 đ‘źđ‘¶đ‘©đ‘€đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. [3]

𐑩𐑯 𐑡𐑹𐑯𐑿đ‘ș𐑩 1893, 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘›đ‘§đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘‘, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑞 Â·đ‘šđ‘źđ‘šđ‘›đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑓𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑀𐑧𐑛 𐑑 𐑞 𐑓𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑊𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑑 Â·đ‘€đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Œ ·𐑐𐑞𐑑𐑊. [79] 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑒𐑧𐑐𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑞 𐑯𐑿 𐑐𐑾𐑑𐑩, [80] 𐑯 𐑕𐑒đ‘č𐑯𐑛 𐑞 𐑀đ‘Č𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑣𐑫𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑒𐑫𐑛 𐑕𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑞 𐑩𐑀𐑰𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑒𐑀𐑭𐑕 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑕𐑐đ‘č𐑑 𐑑 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕. [81] 𐑣𐑰 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘ąđ‘±đ‘›đ‘©đ‘› 𐑞 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑓𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑑 𐑩𐑛đ‘Ș𐑐𐑑 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘€đ‘”đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑚đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑊𐑙 𐑩𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑼𐑧𐑒𐑑 𐑑𐑚𐑒𐑕𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯, 𐑯 𐑑𐑹𐑒𐑕𐑩𐑙 𐑳𐑯𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑳𐑄 "𐑑 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑙𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯". [82] 𐑚𐑹𐑒 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 Â·đ‘„đ‘žđ‘œđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘‘ ·𐑒𐑎𐑀, 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑻 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Š, đ‘‘đ‘»đ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑩 "𐑜𐑼𐑹𐑯𐑛 ·𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑐𐑊𐑒" đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑞 𐑄đ‘Č𐑯đ‘č𐑩𐑑𐑩 Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑩𐑛𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑑𐑱𐑒𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘Źđ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 1892. 𐑑 𐑘đ‘č ·𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕, 𐑮 Â·đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑒đ‘č𐑊𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 đ‘œđ‘łđ‘đ‘Œđ‘Żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑓 𐑩𐑜𐑯đ‘č𐑩𐑙 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑖𐑿𐑟 𐑯 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑕𐑎𐑀𐑊 đ‘Ș𐑯 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 ·𐑣𐑎𐑄 ·𐑟𐑔𐑀, 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑖𐑷 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑀đ‘ș𐑛 𐑝 𐑯𐑮 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘• 𐑑 đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. [81] [83] [n 15] 𐑩𐑯 1894 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑰𐑝𐑛 𐑩 𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑚𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑩 𐑕𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑔đ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘Œ, ·𐑣𐑧𐑯𐑟𐑊 ·𐑣𐑳𐑯𐑑 ·𐑣𐑳𐑗𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑯—·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛 đ‘„đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘ŸÂŁ10,000. ·𐑹𐑧𐑚, 𐑣𐑔 𐑗đ‘ș𐑛 𐑞 𐑚đ‘č𐑛 𐑝 𐑑𐑼𐑳𐑕𐑑𐑰𐑟 𐑩𐑐𐑶𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑑 đ‘•đ‘”đ‘đ‘Œđ‘đ‘Č𐑟 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Š, đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘› 𐑑 𐑿𐑟 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑩𐑑 𐑑 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑩 𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀 𐑝 𐑰𐑒𐑩𐑯đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑒𐑕 𐑯 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕. 𐑖𐑷 𐑛𐑊𐑄𐑻𐑛; 𐑣𐑰 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑩 đ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑑𐑼đ‘ș𐑩 𐑑 𐑞 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑕𐑩𐑓đ‘Č𐑛 𐑐𐑻𐑐𐑩𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Š. 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Šđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘”đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Š đ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘ąđ‘±đ‘›đ‘©đ‘› 𐑑 𐑕𐑩𐑐đ‘č𐑑 𐑞 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘€, 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑰𐑒𐑩𐑯đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑒𐑕 𐑯 ·𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 ·𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑯𐑕 (LSE) 𐑎𐑐𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘•đ‘łđ‘„đ‘Œ 𐑝 1895. [84]

𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 1890𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑝𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑟 𐑀𐑧𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑹𐑟 𐑣𐑰 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑄𐑱𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑯𐑱𐑄 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑. [85] 𐑩𐑯 1897 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘ąđ‘±đ‘›đ‘©đ‘› 𐑑 𐑓𐑊𐑀 𐑩𐑯 𐑳𐑯𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘đ‘±đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Š 𐑓 𐑩 "đ‘đ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Ż"( 𐑐𐑹𐑼𐑩𐑖 đ‘’đ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Œ) 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯'𐑟 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑐𐑭𐑯𐑒𐑟𐑭𐑕 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑑. 𐑹𐑑 𐑀𐑰𐑕𐑑 𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑑𐑫𐑒 𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑄𐑿𐑯𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ đ‘•đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘•đ‘€đ‘Š; [n 16] 𐑱𐑧𐑯 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 đ‘œđ‘łđ‘đ‘Œđ‘Żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑼𐑩𐑓đ‘č𐑄𐑛 𐑩𐑯 1899 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑐𐑭𐑯𐑒𐑟𐑭𐑕 𐑝𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑼𐑩 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑧𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 ·𐑚𐑳𐑟𐑩 𐑝 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑐𐑭𐑯𐑒𐑟𐑭𐑕, 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑑 𐑞 𐑯𐑿𐑀𐑊 𐑓đ‘č𐑄𐑛 𐑚𐑳𐑟𐑩 𐑒𐑏𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑀. [87]

𐑩𐑯 1898, 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘łđ‘€đ‘‘ 𐑝 đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œđ‘ąđ‘»đ‘’, ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑣𐑧𐑀𐑔 𐑚𐑼𐑮𐑒 𐑛𐑬𐑯. 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑 ·𐑐𐑱𐑯-Â·đ‘‘đ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›, 𐑩 𐑼𐑩𐑗 Â·đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Ž-·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 𐑹𐑫𐑄𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑔𐑄 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑄𐑧𐑑 𐑔𐑟𐑔 𐑞 Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘šđ‘Ÿ. 𐑞 đ‘đ‘źđ‘°đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘• đ‘˜đ‘œ 𐑖𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘› 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑖𐑰 𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑖𐑫𐑛 𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊. [88] 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑀đ‘Č𐑯𐑛, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑖𐑰 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑯𐑻𐑕𐑊𐑙 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑣𐑬𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩, ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑄đ‘Č𐑑 đ‘’đ‘·đ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑒𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑀, đ‘©đ‘œđ‘źđ‘°đ‘› 𐑑 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑥. [3] 𐑞 𐑕𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑎𐑯𐑊 𐑑𐑫𐑒 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑯 1 𐑥𐑔𐑯 1898, 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑕 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘’đ‘Žđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘ Â·đ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘©đ‘Ż. [89] 𐑞 𐑚𐑼đ‘Č𐑛 𐑯 𐑚𐑼đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘œđ‘źđ‘”đ‘„ 𐑹𐑻 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑱𐑥𐑛 𐑓đ‘č𐑑𐑩-𐑱𐑳𐑯. 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑝𐑿 𐑝 𐑞 𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 Â·đ‘»đ‘đ‘Č𐑯, "𐑞đ‘ș 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘œđ‘§đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯𐑑đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑓𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑕". [3] 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑹𐑻 𐑯𐑮 𐑗𐑊𐑀𐑛𐑟𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑥, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑟 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Š đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘°đ‘đ‘› 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑄𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛; đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑣𐑎𐑀𐑊 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑'𐑕 𐑱𐑩𐑖, 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑀đ‘Č𐑒𐑑 𐑑 𐑕𐑩𐑥𐑧𐑕𐑑, 𐑩𐑟 𐑀𐑧𐑕 𐑱đ‘Č𐑛𐑀𐑊 𐑒𐑟𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛. [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑻𐑀𐑊 𐑱𐑰𐑒𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑥 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑄𐑳𐑗 đ‘Ș𐑒𐑿𐑐đ‘Č𐑛 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 ·𐑄𐑞𐑒𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑯𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑕𐑊𐑕 𐑝 Â·đ‘đ‘­đ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Œ'𐑟 ·𐑟𐑊𐑙 𐑕đ‘Č𐑒𐑩𐑀, 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑞 ·𐑐𐑻𐑓𐑊𐑒𐑑 Â·đ‘đ‘­đ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘Č𐑑 𐑀𐑱𐑑 𐑩𐑯 1898. [95] 𐑩𐑯 1906 𐑞 Â·đ‘–đ‘·đ‘Ÿ 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑩 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩 𐑣𐑎𐑄 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑱𐑩𐑑 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕, Â·đ‘Łđ‘žđ‘‘đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘›đ‘–đ‘Œ; 𐑞𐑱 𐑟𐑰𐑯𐑱𐑄𐑛 𐑞 𐑣𐑬𐑕" 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 ·𐑒đ‘čđ‘Żđ‘Œ", 𐑯 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘đ‘› 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑓 𐑞 𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑀đ‘Č𐑝𐑟. 𐑞𐑱 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑩 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑓𐑀𐑚𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑩𐑛𐑧𐑀𐑓𐑊 𐑯 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑑𐑣𐑷𐑀 ·𐑒đ‘č𐑑. [96]

𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕: 1900–1914[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

Â·đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Ÿđ‘” đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š, ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑩 𐑓𐑻𐑄 𐑟𐑧𐑐𐑿𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑. 𐑩𐑯 1904 J. ·𐑰. Â·đ‘đ‘§đ‘›đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘© 𐑯 ·𐑣𐑞𐑀𐑊 Â·đ‘œđ‘źđ‘­đ‘Żđ‘đ‘Šđ‘€-Â·đ‘šđ‘žđ‘’đ‘Œ 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩 𐑒𐑳𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑯𐑊 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑟𐑶𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒đ‘č𐑑 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑀𐑎𐑯 ·𐑕𐑒𐑹đ‘ș, ·𐑗𐑧𐑀𐑕𐑊 𐑑 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑟𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑄đ‘Șđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ż 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩. đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑯𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑑 𐑓đ‘Č𐑝 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑱 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑛 𐑓đ‘č𐑑𐑰𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ. [97] [n 17] 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑, ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑚𐑫𐑀'𐑟 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ ·đ‘Č𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑛, 𐑩 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑛𐑊 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑩𐑯 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›, 𐑩𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑀𐑰𐑛𐑊𐑙 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑰𐑯 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘§đ‘›đ‘ąđ‘Œđ‘› VII, 𐑣𐑔 𐑀𐑭𐑓𐑑 𐑕𐑮 𐑄𐑳𐑗 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑼𐑮𐑒 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑗đ‘ș. [98] 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑹𐑊𐑞𐑣𐑧𐑀𐑛 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯'𐑟 ·𐑚𐑚𐑊 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑓 đ‘“đ‘œ 𐑝 𐑞 𐑩𐑓𐑟𐑳𐑯𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑄đ‘Č𐑑 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Žđ‘’, [7] 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑖𐑮𐑯 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑩'𐑟 ·𐑟𐑶𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Żđ‘Žđ‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1907. [99] 𐑖𐑷 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑑 Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ Â·đ‘šđ‘łđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ Â·đ‘˜đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘•, 𐑣𐑔 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑹𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱, "𐑜đ‘Ș𐑑 đ‘źđ‘­đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑾𐑜𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑓... 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ąđ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑑 𐑞 𐑣𐑎𐑀 𐑕𐑐𐑩𐑼𐑩𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 𐑯𐑰𐑮-Â·đ‘œđ‘±đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘’ đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑩𐑟 𐑚𐑧𐑯𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑩 𐑯𐑿 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑮𐑯 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘€, 𐑱đ‘ș𐑹𐑟 𐑄đ‘Č 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑩𐑟 𐑩 𐑝𐑧𐑼𐑩 𐑳𐑯𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑄đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑙 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑎𐑀𐑛 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›." [100] [n 18] ·𐑯𐑳𐑯𐑞𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑕, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑯 Â·đ‘˜đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘• 𐑹𐑻 𐑒𐑀𐑎𐑕 𐑓𐑼𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑟; Â·đ‘˜đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘• 𐑯 ·𐑀𐑱𐑛𐑊 Â·đ‘œđ‘źđ‘§đ‘œđ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑑𐑼đ‘Č𐑛 𐑳𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑑 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘ąđ‘±đ‘› ·𐑖𐑷 𐑑 𐑑𐑱𐑒 𐑳𐑐 𐑞 đ‘đ‘±đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑒𐑮-đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘źđ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑚𐑊 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ J. M. ·𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑥𐑊'𐑟 𐑛𐑧𐑔 𐑩𐑯 1909. [103] 𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑛𐑄đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘› đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘˜đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘Čđ‘đ‘©đ‘€, 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑟𐑳𐑕𐑩𐑀 [104] 𐑯 Â·đ‘Ąđ‘±đ‘„đ‘Ÿ ·𐑥𐑶𐑕, [105] 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 𐑒𐑀𐑎𐑕 𐑓𐑼𐑧𐑯𐑛 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷𐑯 ·𐑎'𐑒đ‘Č𐑕𐑩, 𐑣𐑔 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑐đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘› 𐑑 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑼𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑙 ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑚𐑫𐑀'𐑟 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ ·đ‘Č𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑛. [106]

𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑯 Â·đ‘•đ‘”đ‘đ‘Œđ‘„đ‘šđ‘Ż, 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑰𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 1902, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑟𐑶𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒đ‘č𐑑 𐑩𐑯 1905 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑟đ‘Șđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘ ·𐑀đ‘č𐑱𐑯'𐑟 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑱𐑄 đ‘˜đ‘œ. 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑞 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘đ‘§đ‘›đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘© 𐑯 Â·đ‘œđ‘źđ‘­đ‘Żđ‘đ‘Šđ‘€-Â·đ‘šđ‘žđ‘’đ‘Œ 𐑹𐑻 Â·đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ ·𐑚𐑞𐑚𐑟𐑩 (1905), 𐑛𐑩𐑐𐑩𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑞 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑭𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑄đ‘č𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑝 đ‘žđ‘„đ‘Ÿ đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘żđ‘“đ‘šđ‘’đ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘•đ‘šđ‘€đ‘đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż ·𐑞𐑄𐑊; [107] 𐑞 ·𐑛đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ'𐑟 ·𐑛𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑄𐑩 (1906), 𐑩 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑𐑀𐑊 đ‘•đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘• 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑧𐑔𐑩𐑒𐑕; [108] 𐑯 Â·đ‘•đ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘Œ 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑎𐑐𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑩, ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘’đ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘šđ‘€đ‘­đ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑑 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ'𐑟 ·𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑊 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑎𐑐𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑩, 𐑕𐑰𐑯 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 𐑩𐑯 1906 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑊𐑙 đ‘˜đ‘œ. [109]

𐑯𐑬 𐑐𐑼đ‘Șđ‘•đ‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘• 𐑯 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑳𐑯đ‘č𐑔𐑩𐑛đ‘Ș𐑒𐑕 𐑔𐑊𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑓đ‘čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Œ ·𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑯𐑀𐑊 ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚 𐑹𐑟 "𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑒𐑳𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩" 𐑯 "đ‘•đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘• 𐑓𐑾𐑕". [7] 𐑞𐑰𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑩𐑛 Â·đ‘œđ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘™ ·𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑛 (đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘„đ‘œđ‘› 1908), 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑎𐑊𐑙-𐑳𐑐 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑀𐑚𐑙𐑒𐑎 Â·đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘§đ‘‘ (1909), ·𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑩𐑀đ‘Č𐑩𐑯𐑕 (1910), 𐑯 ·𐑓𐑚𐑯𐑊'𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 ·𐑐𐑀𐑱 (1911). ·𐑚𐑀𐑚𐑙𐑒𐑎 Â·đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘§đ‘‘ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑚𐑹𐑯𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑕 𐑜𐑼𐑬𐑯𐑛𐑟 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 ·𐑀đ‘č𐑛 Â·đ‘—đ‘±đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ż (𐑞 𐑩𐑓𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑀 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›), 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑛 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯; 𐑩𐑑 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑛 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑚𐑊 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑊. [110] 𐑓𐑹𐑯𐑩'𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 ·𐑐𐑀𐑱, 𐑩 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑛𐑊 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑕𐑳𐑓𐑼𐑩𐑡𐑧𐑑𐑕, 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑞 𐑀đ‘Șđ‘™đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑼𐑳𐑯 𐑝 𐑧𐑯𐑩 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑐𐑀𐑱—622 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘čđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ. [111]

Â·đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘€đ‘°đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑩𐑯 (1912), 𐑩 𐑀𐑧𐑕 đ‘Łđ‘Œđ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 𐑝 𐑑𐑟𐑔 𐑯 𐑓𐑷𐑀𐑕 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑕 𐑹𐑑𐑩𐑑𐑿𐑛𐑟 𐑞𐑹𐑯 ·𐑚𐑀𐑚𐑙𐑒𐑎 Â·đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘§đ‘‘, 𐑼𐑹𐑯 𐑓 𐑱𐑑 𐑱𐑰𐑒𐑕 𐑩𐑯 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 𐑯 đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Žđ‘šđ‘Œ 1913. [112] 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ, Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘„đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż, 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1912 𐑯 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑛 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘© 𐑞 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑊𐑙 đ‘˜đ‘œ, 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑚𐑻𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑖đ‘č𐑑𐑀𐑊 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘ąđ‘Œđ‘›đ‘Ÿ. [113] 𐑖𐑷 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛, "𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑟 𐑞 𐑒𐑳𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑄 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘– 𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑕 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑝 𐑄đ‘Č𐑯 𐑩𐑟 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑, 𐑑 𐑩𐑯𐑓đ‘č𐑄 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱—𐑞𐑚𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑟 𐑛𐑳𐑀, 𐑚𐑀𐑚𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑄𐑩𐑕, 𐑳𐑯𐑐đ‘Șđ‘đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ, 𐑯 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑚𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑳𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀.... 𐑣𐑧𐑯𐑕 đ‘Œđ‘Žđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑻𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑛𐑊𐑄𐑭𐑯𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 𐑐𐑾𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘© 𐑯 ·𐑚𐑻𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘Č 𐑖𐑫𐑛 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑄đ‘Č đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘č𐑄𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞𐑧𐑄 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑." [114] 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑎𐑐𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀 1914, 𐑕𐑑𐑾𐑩𐑙 ·𐑕𐑻 Â·đ‘Łđ‘»đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘ ·𐑑𐑟𐑰 𐑯 Â·đ‘„đ‘•đ‘Ÿ ·𐑐𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑒 ·𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑧𐑀 𐑹𐑟, đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘đ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘€đ‘Š, 𐑩 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘§đ‘•đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑧𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕 𐑯 𐑩 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑒𐑯𐑩 đ‘“đ‘€đ‘Źđ‘Œ-đ‘œđ‘»đ‘€. 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘»đ‘€đ‘œ 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑩 𐑟𐑎𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑒 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘±đ‘Ÿđ‘Ș𐑯 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑧𐑀 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘’đ‘·đ‘Ÿđ‘› ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑻𐑯, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘„đ‘œ 𐑩𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛. [115] 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑩𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑒𐑩𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑊 đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 𐑥𐑩𐑀đ‘Č, 𐑱𐑧𐑯 ·𐑑𐑟𐑰 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑜𐑮𐑩𐑙 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑛𐑱, 𐑯 𐑞 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 đ‘’đ‘€đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘›. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑒𐑮-𐑕𐑑𐑾 𐑞𐑧𐑯 đ‘‘đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑿𐑧𐑕. [116] [117] [n 19]

Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ: 1900–1913[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

Man in late middle age, with full head of hair, full beard, and combative facial expression
·𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑯 1914, 𐑱𐑥𐑛 57

𐑩𐑯 1899, 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑚đ‘č ·𐑹đ‘č 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱𐑩𐑖𐑑 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑑𐑱𐑒 𐑩 𐑯𐑿𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑀 𐑕𐑑𐑹𐑯𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑰𐑄𐑛, 𐑀đ‘Č𐑒 ·𐑣𐑎𐑄 ·𐑟𐑔𐑀, 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑩 "𐑯đ‘Ș𐑯-·𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑" 𐑩𐑖𐑿. đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 𐑞 đ‘“đ‘żđ‘—đ‘Œ Â·đ‘€đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Œ 𐑐𐑼đ‘Č𐑄 đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ Â·đ‘źđ‘šđ‘„đ‘Ÿđ‘Š ·𐑄𐑩𐑒𐑛đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑛, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑟đ‘Č𐑯@𐑼𐑰𐑕đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑩𐑑 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷. [119] 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ' 𐑱đ‘č 𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑓𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑎, Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑧𐑄𐑐đ‘Čđ‘Œ (1900), ·𐑖𐑷 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑀đ‘ș𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 "𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘§đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘łđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑓𐑹𐑒𐑑 𐑱𐑰 𐑄𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑 𐑞 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘€ đ‘“đ‘§đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ đ‘©đ‘đ‘±đ‘€đ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑑𐑿𐑑 𐑓 𐑩𐑑". [120]

𐑹𐑟 𐑞 𐑯𐑿 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑟𐑰𐑕𐑊𐑙𐑀𐑊 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑀𐑔𐑠𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑀𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑚𐑒𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕. [121] 𐑞𐑳𐑕, 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑩 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘›đ‘§đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘‘, 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛 𐑞 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑓𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑩𐑄đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘€ ·𐑣𐑷𐑀, ·𐑓𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑙𐑛𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑓𐑧𐑚𐑟𐑔đ‘ș𐑩 1900, 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 Â·đ‘€đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Œ Â·đ‘źđ‘§đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż Â·đ‘’đ‘©đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šâ€”đ‘đ‘źđ‘°đ‘’đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑞 𐑄đ‘Șđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ż Â·đ‘€đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Œ ·𐑐𐑞𐑑𐑊. [122] 𐑚đ‘Č 1903, 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑑𐑻𐑄 𐑹𐑟 𐑚𐑳𐑟𐑩 đ‘’đ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑐đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›, 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘»đ‘€đ‘œ đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘”đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙: "đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑳𐑟𐑩 ·𐑒𐑏𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑙 đ‘Č 𐑚𐑄 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑚𐑳𐑟𐑩 đ‘’đ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑖𐑫𐑛 𐑚𐑰 𐑩𐑚đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑". [123] đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘žđ‘©đ‘€đ‘§đ‘•, 𐑩𐑯 1904 𐑣𐑰 𐑕𐑑𐑫𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 ·𐑒𐑏𐑯𐑑𐑊 ·𐑒𐑏𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑀 đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘§đ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ. đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩𐑒 𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑐𐑱𐑯, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟" [𐑄𐑱𐑒𐑊𐑙] 𐑚𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑔𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑕𐑻𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑜𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑩𐑯", 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑛𐑿𐑀𐑊 𐑛𐑊𐑓𐑰𐑑𐑩𐑛. 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑓đ‘č𐑱 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑đ‘č𐑩𐑀 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕. [123] 𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑊, 𐑞 1906 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑩 𐑣𐑿𐑡 Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑄𐑩𐑥đ‘č𐑩𐑑𐑩 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑱𐑒 𐑝 29 Â·đ‘€đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Œ đ‘„đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. 𐑖𐑷 𐑝𐑿𐑛 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑏𐑑𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑱𐑩𐑞 đ‘•đ‘’đ‘§đ‘đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„; 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑩 𐑀𐑎 đ‘©đ‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘˜đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 𐑞 𐑯𐑿 𐑐𐑼đ‘Č𐑄 đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ, ·𐑕𐑻 ·𐑣𐑧𐑯𐑟𐑊 ·𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑧𐑀-Â·đ‘šđ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑯 𐑕𐑷 𐑞 Â·đ‘€đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Œ đ‘„đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑯𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑒𐑹𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀: "đ‘Č 𐑩𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑩𐑥đ‘Č𐑟 𐑑 𐑞 Â·đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘đ‘»đ‘• 𐑓 𐑄đ‘Č 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑩 𐑚đ‘Ș𐑛𐑩". [124]

𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞 1906 𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑓𐑧𐑀𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑯𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑓𐑼𐑧𐑖 đ‘€đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘, 𐑯 𐑕𐑷 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑓đ‘č𐑄 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑧𐑀𐑎-𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œ H. G. Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿ, 𐑣𐑔 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑛 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑩𐑯 𐑓𐑧𐑚𐑟𐑔đ‘ș𐑩 1903. [125] đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿ'đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ 𐑓 𐑼𐑩𐑓đ‘čđ‘„â€”đ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑓 đ‘’đ‘€đ‘Žđ‘•đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑮đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 ·𐑊𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑑 Â·đ‘€đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Œ ·𐑐𐑞𐑑𐑊—𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑹𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑛𐑟 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊'𐑟 "𐑎𐑀𐑛 Â·đ‘œđ‘šđ‘™", 𐑀𐑧𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷. [126] 𐑩𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑑 ·𐑒𐑎𐑀, Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿ "𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑀 𐑒𐑩𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑓 𐑐𐑫𐑑𐑊𐑙 [𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ] 𐑩𐑒𐑟đ‘Ș𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒 đ‘„đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Ÿ đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑯 𐑐𐑼𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑕𐑑 đ‘đ‘»đ‘—đ‘żđ‘Ș𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑩". [127] 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑝𐑿, "𐑞 ·𐑎𐑀𐑛 Â·đ‘œđ‘šđ‘™ 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑙𐑜𐑱𐑩𐑖 ·𐑄𐑟 Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿ, 𐑣𐑰 𐑩𐑯đ‘Č𐑩𐑀𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓". [127] đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑼𐑩𐑟đ‘Č𐑯@𐑼𐑰𐑕đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑩𐑯 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1908; [128] 𐑖𐑷 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑 𐑞 𐑩𐑜𐑟𐑧𐑒𐑿𐑑𐑩𐑝 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀 1911. 𐑣𐑰 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘ąđ‘łđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞 ·𐑎𐑀𐑛 Â·đ‘œđ‘šđ‘™ 𐑖𐑫𐑛 𐑣𐑹𐑝 đ‘œđ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑹𐑱 𐑑 Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑳𐑄 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ đ‘»đ‘€đ‘œ: "𐑜đ‘Ș𐑛 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑯𐑮𐑟 đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 đ‘šđ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑛𐑳𐑯 𐑩𐑑". [129] [130] 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑀𐑧𐑕 𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑝—𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑀𐑱𐑄𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘©đ‘›đ‘đ‘­đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘™ đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿâ€”Â·đ‘–đ‘· 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑩 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż. [131]

𐑩𐑯 1912 ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘đ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘›ÂŁ1,000 𐑓 𐑩 𐑱𐑳𐑯-𐑓𐑩𐑓𐑔 𐑖đ‘ș 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘šđ‘Ÿ' 𐑯𐑿 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑊𐑙 đ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œ, 𐑩 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑹𐑰𐑒𐑀𐑊 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘°đ‘Ż 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑿 ·𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑕𐑄𐑩𐑯, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 đ‘©đ‘đ‘œđ‘› 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀 1913. 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑩 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑙 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘źđ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑, 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑿 𐑒đ‘č𐑕 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘šđ‘żđ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑯đ‘Ș𐑯𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑕𐑀𐑊. [132] 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑔𐑯 𐑹𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑛𐑟 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘°đ‘Ż'𐑟 đ‘§đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œ, Â·đ‘’đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› ·𐑖𐑞𐑐, 𐑣𐑔 𐑚đ‘Č 1916 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑼𐑩𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘šđ‘żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿâ€”" 𐑞 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 đ‘đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘“đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑧𐑯𐑩𐑔𐑩𐑙 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑄𐑰", 𐑩𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷. [133]

𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 ·𐑹đ‘č[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

"đ‘Č 𐑕𐑰 𐑞 Â·đ‘Ąđ‘łđ‘™đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 Â·đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘• 𐑝 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› 𐑯 ·𐑥𐑻𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑊 𐑥𐑳𐑄𐑐𐑊𐑙 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑗𐑭𐑯𐑕 𐑞𐑱 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙𐑛 𐑓 𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘±đ‘Ż 𐑓 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑕𐑄𐑚𐑖𐑊𐑙 𐑱𐑳𐑯 đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑊𐑙 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑮𐑯 đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘žđ‘’đ‘Š 𐑹𐑟 𐑞 𐑛đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑄𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑑đ‘ș𐑩 đ‘đ‘Źđ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛."

𐑖𐑷: 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑹đ‘č (1914). [134]

đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 ·𐑹đ‘č 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯 𐑩𐑯 đ‘·đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ 1914, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑑𐑼𐑹𐑒𐑑 ·𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑹đ‘č, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑾𐑜𐑿𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑱đ‘č𐑩𐑙 đ‘Żđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑰𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑒𐑳𐑀𐑐𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀. [7] 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑩 𐑝𐑿 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯𐑚𐑔𐑩𐑄𐑩 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘„đ‘©đ‘•đ‘“đ‘œ 𐑝 đ‘“đ‘»đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ đ‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑯 𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓𐑼𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑟; Â·đ‘»đ‘đ‘Č𐑯 𐑼𐑧𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑟 𐑞𐑹𐑑" [h] 𐑩𐑟 đ‘©đ‘đ‘œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘• 𐑹𐑑 𐑧𐑯𐑩 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒 𐑓𐑳𐑙𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 đ‘’đ‘·đ‘Ÿđ‘› 𐑞 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘žđ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑝 𐑞𐑮𐑟 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘." [135]

𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑧𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑟𐑧𐑐𐑿𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯, ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑐𐑼đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘œđ‘šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘ đ‘•đ‘’đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘’đ‘©đ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑷𐑔đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑟, 𐑯 𐑻𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑯 1917 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯𐑝đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑓𐑰𐑀𐑛 ·𐑄𐑞𐑖𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘Łđ‘±đ‘œ 𐑑 𐑝𐑩𐑟𐑩𐑑 𐑞 Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ż ·𐑓𐑟𐑳𐑯𐑑 đ‘šđ‘šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘“đ‘°đ‘€đ‘›đ‘Ÿ. 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 10,000-𐑹𐑻𐑛 𐑼𐑩𐑐đ‘č𐑑, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑧𐑄𐑓𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑞 𐑣𐑿𐑄𐑩𐑯 𐑹𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘€đ‘Ąđ‘Œ'𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑹𐑧𐑀 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑰𐑝𐑛, 𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑀𐑧𐑕 𐑝 𐑩 𐑀𐑎𐑯 đ‘đ‘¶đ‘•. 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀 1917 𐑣𐑰 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑛 𐑞 𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑹𐑧𐑀𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑊𐑙 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩'𐑟 𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 𐑞 𐑱đ‘č: "𐑩 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑒𐑀𐑭𐑕 𐑄đ‘č𐑩𐑀 𐑹𐑕𐑧𐑑 𐑑 𐑞 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑯 đ‘’đ‘·đ‘Ÿ đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ đ‘Ąđ‘łđ‘™đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„". [136]

𐑔𐑼𐑰 𐑖đ‘č𐑑 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑻 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘„đ‘œđ‘› đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞 𐑱đ‘č. 𐑞 ·𐑊𐑙𐑒𐑩 𐑝 Â·đ‘đ‘Œđ‘”đ‘•đ‘©đ‘€đ‘§đ‘„, 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1915, đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘’đ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑐𐑼đ‘Șđ‘šđ‘€đ‘©đ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Œ 𐑓 𐑚𐑻𐑀𐑧𐑕𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑞 𐑧𐑯𐑩𐑄𐑊 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑄𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑑đ‘ș𐑩 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑭𐑯𐑛; 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘č𐑄𐑛 𐑩𐑯 1916 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑻𐑄𐑊𐑙𐑩𐑄 Â·đ‘źđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘č𐑩 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ. [137] ·𐑎'đ‘“đ‘€đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Š V.C., đ‘•đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑙 𐑞 đ‘œđ‘łđ‘đ‘Œđ‘Żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘'𐑕 𐑹𐑑𐑩𐑑𐑿𐑛 𐑑 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑟𐑔𐑑𐑕, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑚𐑹𐑯𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑿𐑒𐑱 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑹𐑑 𐑩 ·𐑟𐑶𐑩𐑀 ·𐑓𐑀đ‘Č𐑩𐑙 ·𐑒đ‘č 𐑚𐑱𐑕 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑚𐑧𐑀𐑥𐑩𐑄 𐑩𐑯 1917. Â·đ‘©đ‘œđ‘łđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘• Â·đ‘›đ‘łđ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 ·𐑚𐑊𐑑, 𐑩 đ‘Ąđ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑓𐑾𐑕, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘­đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑩 𐑀đ‘Č𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕; 𐑩𐑑 𐑎𐑐𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑟𐑶𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒đ‘č𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑡𐑹𐑯𐑿đ‘ș𐑩 1917. [138]

·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

Cityscape of badly damaged large buildings
·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑩 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 đ‘źđ‘”đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞 Â·đ‘°đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑟đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑙, 𐑱𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀 1916

·𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 𐑕𐑩𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 ·𐑣𐑎𐑄 ·𐑟𐑔𐑀 𐑱𐑩𐑞𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 ·𐑧𐑄𐑐đ‘Čđ‘Œ (𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑖𐑫𐑛 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 ·𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑹𐑧𐑀𐑔). [139] 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀 1916 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑕𐑒𐑱𐑞𐑊𐑙𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 ·𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑄𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 đ‘Żđ‘šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„: "𐑩𐑯 𐑐𐑶𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑀𐑻𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑯𐑳𐑔𐑩𐑙 𐑯 đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘œđ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑯𐑳𐑔𐑩𐑙 𐑞𐑰𐑟 𐑓𐑧𐑀𐑎-đ‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘• 𐑝 𐑄đ‘Č𐑯 đ‘€đ‘°đ‘ 𐑞 Â·đ‘šđ‘»đ‘šđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑯𐑮𐑱đ‘ș." [140] 𐑑𐑎𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑊𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑕, 𐑣𐑰 𐑩𐑕𐑻𐑑𐑩𐑛, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀; 𐑩𐑀đ‘Č𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Œ đ‘đ‘Źđ‘Œ (đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Š Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›) 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑊𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀. [140] 𐑞 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 Â·đ‘°đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑟đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑙 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑄𐑳𐑯𐑔 𐑑𐑫𐑒 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑚đ‘Č đ‘•đ‘Œđ‘đ‘źđ‘Č𐑟. đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑕𐑩𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑓đ‘čđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ, 𐑣𐑰 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑣đ‘Șđ‘źđ‘Œ 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 đ‘•đ‘łđ‘„đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑊𐑒𐑿𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 𐑟𐑧𐑚𐑩𐑀 đ‘€đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑛 𐑑 đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘°đ‘ 𐑩𐑯 𐑕𐑳𐑄 𐑓đ‘č𐑄 𐑝 Â·đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Ž-·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż. 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑬 𐑑 ·𐑕𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑞 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 ·𐑒𐑹𐑧𐑕𐑗𐑩𐑯 (1917), 𐑣𐑰 𐑩𐑯𐑝𐑩𐑟𐑩𐑡𐑛 𐑩 đ‘“đ‘§đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ąđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑐𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕. ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛 𐑼𐑧𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑟 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑞 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑐𐑾𐑑𐑩 ·𐑖𐑊𐑯 ·𐑓đ‘Č𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑩𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑊, 𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑯 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑄đ‘Șđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘‘ đ‘•đ‘’đ‘°đ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘œđ‘Ș𐑑𐑩𐑯. [141]

𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑐𐑮𐑕𐑑𐑱đ‘č đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘›, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘ș𐑛 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 đ‘œđ‘łđ‘đ‘Œđ‘Żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘'𐑕 đ‘’đ‘Žđ‘»đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘©đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑑𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛𐑟 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›, [142] 𐑯 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑧𐑀𐑎-𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ ·𐑣𐑊𐑀đ‘ș ·𐑚𐑧𐑀đ‘Ș𐑒 𐑯 G. K. Â·đ‘—đ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑩𐑯 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛𐑧𐑄𐑊𐑙 𐑞𐑰𐑟 đ‘šđ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ. [143] 𐑞 Â·đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Ž-·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 ·𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑑𐑊 𐑝 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1921 𐑀𐑧𐑛 𐑑 𐑞 𐑐𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 𐑯đ‘č𐑔 𐑯 𐑕𐑬𐑔, 𐑩 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑄𐑱𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷. [142] 𐑩𐑯 1922 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘€ 𐑱đ‘č 𐑚𐑼𐑮𐑒 𐑬𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑬𐑔 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑐𐑼𐑮-𐑑𐑼𐑰𐑑𐑩 𐑯 𐑹𐑯𐑑𐑩-𐑑𐑼𐑰𐑑𐑩 đ‘“đ‘šđ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, 𐑞 𐑓đ‘čđ‘„đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑣𐑔𐑄 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑞 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 ·𐑓𐑟𐑰 ·𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑. [144] 𐑖𐑷 đ‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑩𐑯 đ‘·đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘, 𐑯 𐑄𐑧𐑑 ·𐑄đ‘Č𐑒𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, 𐑞𐑧𐑯 𐑣𐑧𐑛 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑓𐑟𐑰 ·𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑'𐑕 Â·đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ Â·đ‘œđ‘łđ‘đ‘Œđ‘Żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘. [145] 𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑄𐑳𐑗 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑚𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑱𐑧𐑯, 𐑔𐑼𐑰 đ‘›đ‘±đ‘Ÿ đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑞 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 đ‘€đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑫𐑖𐑑 𐑯 𐑒𐑊𐑀𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑹𐑯𐑑𐑩-𐑑𐑼𐑰𐑑𐑩 𐑓đ‘čđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ. [146] 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑑 ·𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ'đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑼𐑮𐑑: "đ‘Č 𐑄𐑧𐑑 ·𐑄đ‘Č𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑓 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑯 𐑀𐑭𐑕𐑑 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 đ‘Ș𐑯 đ‘•đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘›đ‘± 𐑀𐑭𐑕𐑑, 𐑯 𐑚𐑄 𐑝𐑧𐑼𐑩 đ‘œđ‘€đ‘šđ‘› đ‘Č 𐑛𐑩𐑛. đ‘Č 𐑟𐑊𐑥𐑶𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘„đ‘§đ‘„đ‘Œđ‘Š, 𐑯 𐑹𐑊𐑀 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑕𐑮 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑀𐑶𐑩𐑀 𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑑 đ‘•đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘€ đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑛𐑧𐑔". [147] 𐑖𐑷 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑩 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑 𐑷𐑀 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑑𐑫𐑒 𐑛𐑿𐑩𐑀 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖-·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑩𐑯 1934. [148]

1920𐑟[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

Garden hut in well-kept surroundings
𐑞 𐑟𐑎𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑣𐑳𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 ·𐑒đ‘čđ‘Żđ‘Œ, ·𐑱𐑩𐑑 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕, 𐑱đ‘ș ·𐑖𐑷 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 1906

·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑑 đ‘©đ‘đ‘œ đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑱đ‘č 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 ·𐑣𐑞𐑑𐑚𐑟𐑱𐑒 ·𐑣𐑏𐑕, 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1916–17 𐑯 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘č𐑄𐑛 𐑩𐑯 1920. 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑷𐑛𐑹𐑱 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Żđ‘Žđ‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ, 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑒𐑔𐑀𐑊 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑰𐑝𐑛; 𐑩𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ: "𐑄𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑠𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑹𐑟 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑿𐑠𐑔𐑩𐑀 𐑑 𐑕𐑱 𐑯 𐑑𐑱𐑒𐑕 𐑑𐑱đ‘Č𐑕 𐑹𐑟 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 𐑹𐑟 𐑿𐑠𐑔𐑩𐑀 𐑑 𐑕𐑱 𐑩𐑑". [149] đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘„đ‘œ 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Žđ‘šđ‘Œ 1921 𐑞 ·𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑒𐑻𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒𐑕: "𐑹𐑟 𐑿𐑠𐑔𐑩𐑀 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑄𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Źđ‘Œ 𐑑𐑔 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙", 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑱𐑯𐑊𐑙 "𐑄𐑳𐑗 đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘±đ‘Żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑯 𐑕𐑳𐑄 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑓𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑟𐑊𐑓𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯". [150] Â·đ‘»đ‘đ‘Č𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘»đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 đ‘šđ‘źđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑚𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛, 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑 𐑓 ·𐑰𐑛𐑊𐑔 Â·đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑀𐑱𐑛𐑊 Â·đ‘łđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘ąđ‘»đ‘›. [151]

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑀𐑞𐑥𐑩𐑕𐑑-𐑕𐑒𐑱𐑀 𐑔𐑊𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑚𐑹𐑒 𐑑 Â·đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘”đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘€đ‘©, 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1918–20 𐑯 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑛 𐑩𐑯 1922. ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑟 𐑩𐑑 𐑹𐑟 "𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑑 𐑑 𐑓𐑧𐑯𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑓'𐑞 𐑚đ‘Ș𐑑𐑩𐑄𐑀𐑩𐑕 𐑐𐑩𐑑 𐑝 𐑩𐑯 đ‘łđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑳𐑼𐑩𐑡𐑩𐑙 đ‘đ‘§đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„"'. [7] 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑕đ‘Č𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑝 𐑓đ‘Č𐑝 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑛𐑩𐑐𐑩𐑒𐑑𐑕 đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘”đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑯 𐑞 𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑕 𐑝 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑯𐑡𐑧𐑝𐑩𐑑𐑩, 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 Â·đ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 ·𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑑 𐑞 đ‘˜đ‘œ 31,920 𐑱𐑛𐑰. [152] 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒𐑕 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑞 𐑓đ‘Č𐑝 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑑𐑼đ‘Č𐑒𐑊𐑙𐑀𐑊 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘°đ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑩𐑯 𐑒𐑱đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż. [153] [154] [155] 𐑞 đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑼𐑳𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑚𐑼𐑰𐑓, 𐑯 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑣𐑹𐑟 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑝đ‘Č𐑝𐑛 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑟𐑰𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑀𐑊. [156] [157] 𐑖𐑷 𐑓𐑧𐑀𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑊𐑙 đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘đ‘Źđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑣𐑿𐑡 𐑕𐑐𐑹𐑯 𐑝 𐑞𐑩𐑕 "𐑄𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑚đ‘Č𐑩𐑀đ‘Ș𐑥𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 ·𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑑𐑿𐑒". 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯𐑬 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑩-đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑯 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑑 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 𐑯𐑮 𐑄đ‘č đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ. [7]

𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑄𐑔𐑛 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑖đ‘č𐑑-đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘đ‘›. 𐑩𐑯 1920 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑞𐑒 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑟𐑎𐑒𐑀𐑱𐑄𐑛 𐑩 𐑕𐑱𐑯𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑐𐑎𐑐 ·𐑚𐑧𐑯𐑊𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑑 XV; 𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑕𐑑đ‘č𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑝𐑿 𐑝 𐑣𐑻 đ‘đ‘œđ‘› 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 "𐑣𐑭𐑓-𐑹𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘Ąđ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘•" 𐑯 𐑕𐑳𐑄𐑹𐑳𐑯 𐑝 "𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑕𐑹𐑯𐑩𐑑𐑩". [158] 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑣𐑻 𐑩𐑯 1913, 𐑯 𐑞 𐑒𐑚𐑯𐑩𐑯đ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑑 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑻𐑯 𐑑 𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑. [7] 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑 ·𐑕𐑱𐑯𐑑 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑄𐑊𐑛𐑩𐑀 𐑄𐑳𐑯𐑔𐑕 𐑝 1923, 𐑯 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘„đ‘œđ‘› đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑷𐑛𐑹𐑱 𐑩𐑯 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ. 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘”đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑰𐑝𐑛 𐑞đ‘ș, [159] 𐑯 𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑑𐑕 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘„đ‘œ 𐑞 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑊𐑙 𐑄𐑞𐑗. [160] 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚'𐑟 đ‘“đ‘źđ‘±đ‘Ÿ, "đ‘°đ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑎𐑚𐑧𐑀 𐑐𐑼đ‘Č𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑒𐑫𐑛 𐑯𐑮 𐑀đ‘Șđ‘™đ‘œđ‘Œ 𐑩𐑜𐑯đ‘č ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑕𐑱𐑯𐑑 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯". 𐑞 𐑕đ‘Č𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑓 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑐𐑼đ‘Č𐑟 𐑓 1925 đ‘đ‘źđ‘±đ‘Ÿđ‘› 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑹𐑟"... 𐑄𐑞𐑒𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑚𐑮𐑔 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 𐑣𐑿𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑑𐑊, 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑄𐑿𐑀𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑕𐑹𐑑đ‘Čđ‘Œ đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑰𐑩𐑙 𐑩𐑯𐑓𐑿𐑟𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑐𐑮𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑚𐑿𐑑𐑩". [161] 𐑣𐑰 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑟𐑊𐑥𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑄𐑳𐑯𐑊𐑑đ‘ș𐑩 𐑐𐑼đ‘Č𐑟 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑱𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩𐑑, đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 𐑜𐑼𐑬𐑯𐑛𐑟 𐑞𐑹𐑑 "𐑄đ‘Č đ‘źđ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑄đ‘Č đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Č𐑛 𐑄𐑰 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑕𐑩𐑓𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑄𐑳𐑯𐑊 𐑓 𐑄đ‘Č 𐑯𐑰𐑛𐑟". [162] [n 20]

đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑕𐑱𐑯𐑑 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯, 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓đ‘Č𐑝 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č ·𐑖𐑷 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱. 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 1924, 𐑣𐑰 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑓đ‘č đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑹𐑟 𐑣𐑩𐑟 "đ‘„đ‘šđ‘œđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑎𐑐𐑩𐑕", 𐑩 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑑𐑼𐑰𐑑𐑩𐑕 𐑩𐑯𐑑đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑀𐑛 𐑞 ·𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑑 ·𐑹𐑫𐑄𐑩𐑯'𐑟 Â·đ‘œđ‘Č𐑛 𐑑 Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 Â·đ‘’đ‘šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. [164] 𐑞 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯 1928 𐑯 𐑕𐑎𐑀𐑛 𐑹𐑧𐑀. [3] [n 21] 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑧𐑯𐑛 𐑝 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑑𐑼𐑹𐑒𐑑, 𐑩 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑đ‘ș𐑩 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘€đ‘°đ‘œ 𐑝 Â·đ‘Żđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ. 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑞 Â·đ‘€đ‘°đ‘œ 𐑹𐑟 "𐑩 𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀 𐑓 𐑞 𐑯𐑿 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Żđ‘šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑕𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐 𐑹𐑟 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑞 𐑎𐑀𐑛 ·𐑓đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑯 ·đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑕 𐑛𐑊𐑐𐑀𐑎𐑄𐑩𐑕𐑊", 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑘𐑧𐑑 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑞 "đ‘“đ‘§đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛". [166]

𐑖𐑷 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑑 𐑞 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 "𐑩 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘šđ‘đ‘©đ‘œđ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘©", 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑐𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒𐑞𐑑, 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑀𐑱𐑑 1928. 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟, 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘»đ‘đ‘Č𐑯'𐑟 𐑝𐑿, 𐑳𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛𐑀𐑊 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ, 𐑑𐑱𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘»đ‘đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘, 𐑄đ‘Ș𐑯𐑾𐑒𐑩𐑕𐑑, 𐑹𐑯𐑑𐑩-𐑛𐑧𐑄𐑩𐑒𐑟𐑚𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑀đ‘Č𐑯 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑐𐑰𐑀𐑛 𐑑 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ. 𐑞 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘„đ‘œ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑹đ‘č𐑕𐑷 𐑩𐑯 𐑥𐑔𐑯 1928, 𐑯 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑑𐑔 𐑄𐑳𐑯𐑔𐑕 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑕𐑻 ·𐑚𐑚𐑟𐑊 ·𐑥𐑚𐑒𐑕𐑩𐑯'𐑟 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘·đ‘œđ‘˜đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ ·𐑄đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘đ‘Œđ‘Ż Â·đ‘“đ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘€. [3] 𐑞 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑧𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑾𐑑𐑩𐑕𐑑 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑒𐑀𐑎𐑕𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑊𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 đ‘“đ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 ·𐑕𐑻 Â·đ‘§đ‘›đ‘ąđ‘Œđ‘› Â·đ‘§đ‘€đ‘œđ‘ž, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑣𐑔𐑄 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑊𐑯𐑥𐑶𐑛 𐑩 𐑛𐑰𐑐 𐑓𐑼𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑖𐑩𐑐 𐑯 𐑄𐑿𐑗𐑔𐑩𐑀 𐑼𐑩𐑜𐑾𐑛. [167] 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑐𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒𐑞𐑑 𐑑 Â·đ‘§đ‘€đ‘œđ‘ž 𐑹𐑟 "𐑩 𐑕𐑒𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑀𐑩𐑕 Â·đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Žđ‘“đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑚𐑻𐑀𐑧𐑕𐑒 𐑝 𐑛𐑧𐑄𐑩𐑒𐑟𐑚𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑚𐑼𐑰𐑓 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑖đ‘Ș𐑒𐑩𐑙 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑕 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘”đ‘›". [168]

đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞 1920𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯 𐑑 đ‘€đ‘”đ‘Ÿ 𐑓𐑱𐑔 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑒𐑫𐑛 𐑚𐑰 𐑗𐑱𐑯𐑥𐑛 𐑔𐑟𐑔 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑯 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑟𐑰𐑕𐑊𐑙𐑀𐑊 𐑓𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑑đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘€ đ‘„đ‘§đ‘”đ‘©đ‘›đ‘Ÿ. 𐑩𐑯 1922 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑹𐑧𐑀𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑛 ·𐑄𐑔𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑯𐑊'𐑟 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑑 đ‘đ‘Źđ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑀𐑊, đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘»đ‘đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑄𐑊𐑛 𐑞 "𐑊𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑩𐑐𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑯 𐑄𐑳𐑛𐑩𐑀 𐑯 ·𐑐𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑đ‘ș𐑩 𐑛𐑧𐑛𐑀đ‘Ș𐑒", ·𐑄𐑔𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑯𐑊 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 "𐑞 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 𐑒đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑝 𐑑đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑑". [169] 𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑐đ‘ș𐑛 𐑑 𐑑đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘‘ 𐑕𐑻𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑑đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘€ đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘•đ‘§đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ; ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 ODNB 𐑚đ‘Čđ‘©đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘“đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑕𐑒𐑧𐑗 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 "𐑓𐑀𐑻𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑷𐑔đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑑đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œ-𐑱đ‘č đ‘źđ‘±đ‘ đ‘°đ‘„đ‘Ÿ" 𐑑𐑫𐑒 𐑩 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑑 𐑓𐑱𐑛, 𐑯 Â·đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘• ·𐑹𐑧𐑚 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 "𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑑" 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 ·𐑄𐑔𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑯𐑊. [170]

1930𐑟[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

"𐑱𐑰 𐑞 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑾 𐑟𐑰𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑞 USSR... 𐑱𐑰 𐑛𐑩𐑟đ‘Čđ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑼𐑩𐑒đ‘č𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑱𐑰 𐑕𐑷 𐑯𐑮𐑱đ‘ș đ‘§đ‘đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘• 𐑝 𐑰𐑒𐑩𐑯đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑒 đ‘•đ‘€đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œđ‘Š, 𐑐𐑼đ‘Čđ‘đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑳𐑯𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑶𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑯 𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘ș 𐑝 đ‘šđ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘.... 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩𐑱đ‘ș 𐑱𐑰 𐑕𐑷 [𐑩] 𐑣𐑎𐑐𐑓𐑩𐑀 𐑯 𐑩𐑯𐑔𐑿𐑟𐑩𐑹𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑊𐑙-𐑒𐑀𐑭𐑕... 𐑕𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘­đ‘„đ‘đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑝 𐑊𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑊 𐑯 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑹𐑫𐑛 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑩𐑯𐑼𐑩𐑗 𐑳𐑕 𐑩𐑓 đ‘Źđ‘Œ đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑩𐑐𐑀đ‘Č𐑛 đ‘Źđ‘Œ đ‘ąđ‘»đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑧𐑯𐑩 𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑝 𐑑 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎 𐑩𐑑."

đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑞 Â·đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘—đ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ Â·đ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż, 2 𐑄𐑞𐑗 1933, 𐑕đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷 𐑯 20 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. [171]

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘”đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑓 𐑞 Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘‘ Â·đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑛𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑑 𐑞 𐑻𐑀𐑊 1920𐑟 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑣𐑱𐑀𐑛 ·𐑀𐑧𐑯𐑊𐑯 𐑹𐑟 "𐑞 𐑱𐑳𐑯 đ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑕𐑄𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘". [172] 𐑣𐑹𐑝𐑩𐑙 𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑛𐑬𐑯 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘—đ‘­đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑝𐑩𐑟𐑩𐑑, 𐑩𐑯 1931 𐑣𐑰 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑛 𐑩 𐑐𐑾𐑑𐑩 𐑀𐑧𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑯𐑚𐑯𐑕𐑊 Â·đ‘šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ. [173] 𐑞 𐑒đ‘ș𐑓𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑥𐑛 𐑑𐑼𐑩𐑐 𐑒𐑳𐑀𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑀𐑧𐑙𐑔𐑊 𐑄𐑰𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑕𐑑𐑭𐑀𐑊𐑯, 𐑣𐑔𐑄 ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑹𐑟 "𐑩 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑥𐑩𐑯 𐑥𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑀𐑄𐑩𐑯" 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑯𐑮 𐑄𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑊𐑄. [174] 𐑹𐑑 𐑩 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Œ đ‘œđ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘Œ, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑑𐑎𐑀𐑛 𐑞 đ‘œđ‘šđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™: "đ‘Č 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑕𐑰𐑯 𐑷𐑀 𐑞'đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘źđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ' 𐑯 đ‘Č 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑑𐑧𐑟𐑩𐑚𐑀𐑊 đ‘đ‘€đ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞𐑧𐑄". [175] 𐑩𐑯 𐑄𐑞𐑗 1933 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 𐑒𐑮-đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘č𐑩 𐑑 𐑩 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘—đ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ Â·đ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑐𐑼𐑮𐑑𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑊𐑙 đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘źđ‘§đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘‘ đ‘©đ‘—đ‘°đ‘đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘•: "𐑯𐑮 𐑀đ‘Č 𐑩𐑟 𐑑𐑔 𐑓𐑹𐑯𐑑𐑹𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑒, 𐑯𐑮 đ‘•đ‘€đ‘­đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑟 𐑑𐑔 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑀... 𐑓 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑶𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑄đ‘č 𐑟𐑧𐑒𐑀𐑩𐑕 𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑕." [171]

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘šđ‘›đ‘„đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑓 ·𐑄𐑔𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑯𐑊 𐑯 ·𐑕𐑑𐑭𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑛𐑧𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑜𐑼𐑮𐑩𐑙 𐑚𐑊𐑀𐑰𐑓 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑞 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑝đ‘Č𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ąđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘. 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑭𐑑𐑕𐑊 ·𐑐𐑞𐑑𐑊 𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑑 đ‘đ‘Źđ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑥𐑻𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑊 𐑩𐑯 𐑡𐑹𐑯𐑿đ‘ș𐑩 1933, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑹𐑟 "𐑩 𐑝𐑧𐑼𐑩 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑞𐑒𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑄𐑚𐑯, 𐑩 𐑝𐑧𐑼𐑩 𐑱𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑄𐑚𐑯", [176] 𐑯 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 𐑐𐑼𐑬𐑛 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑞 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› 𐑣𐑔 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 "𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑔𐑐𐑿𐑀𐑩𐑕𐑀𐑊 𐑐𐑩𐑀đ‘Č𐑑 𐑯 𐑡𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑑 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ". [177] [n 22] 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑐𐑩𐑀 đ‘šđ‘›đ‘„đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓 ·𐑕𐑑𐑭𐑀𐑊𐑯, đ‘Łđ‘”đ‘Ÿ 𐑟𐑱𐑠𐑰𐑄 𐑣𐑰 đ‘—đ‘šđ‘„đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘› 𐑳𐑯𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑔𐑟𐑔𐑏𐑑 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛. [175] 𐑖𐑷 𐑕𐑷 𐑞 1939 ·𐑄đ‘Ș𐑀đ‘Ș𐑑đ‘Șđ‘â€“Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘šđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘Ș𐑐 ·𐑐𐑚𐑒𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑑𐑼đ‘Č𐑩𐑄𐑓 𐑓 ·𐑕𐑑𐑭𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑣𐑔, 𐑣𐑰 𐑕𐑧𐑛, 𐑯𐑬 𐑣𐑹𐑛 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑔𐑳𐑄. [180]

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑝 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 ·𐑑𐑔 ·𐑑𐑟𐑔 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 đ‘œđ‘«đ‘›, 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1931 𐑯 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘„đ‘œđ‘› 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑚đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑓𐑧𐑚𐑟𐑔đ‘ș𐑩 1932. 𐑞 𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑳𐑯𐑩𐑯𐑔𐑿𐑟𐑩𐑹𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑒. 𐑚𐑟𐑫𐑒𐑕 ·𐑚𐑑𐑒𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 ·𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 "đ‘˜đ‘°đ‘€đ‘›đ‘©đ‘› 𐑑 𐑞 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑳𐑀𐑕 𐑑 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑞𐑬𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑝𐑩𐑙 𐑩 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑", 𐑡𐑳𐑡𐑛 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑩 "𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑙 𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Š đ‘‘đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘• 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż". 𐑞 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Ș𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 ·𐑣𐑧𐑟𐑩𐑀𐑛 ·𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑚𐑿𐑯 𐑕𐑧𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 "𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒đ‘č𐑕, đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘šđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘°đ‘đ‘©đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘’đ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ" 𐑯 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑞 đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘• 𐑊𐑯𐑥𐑶𐑛 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑩𐑑. [181]

𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑯 1936, 𐑱𐑥𐑛 80

Â·đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘šđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘› 𐑱đ‘Č𐑛𐑀𐑊 𐑯 𐑓𐑟𐑰𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑀𐑊. 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Ąđ‘»đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑; 𐑖𐑰 𐑊𐑯𐑥𐑶𐑛 đ‘đ‘¶đ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑀đ‘Čđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑑 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 đ‘•đ‘đ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑑 𐑕𐑰. [182] 𐑖𐑷 𐑄𐑧𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯𐑔𐑿𐑟𐑩𐑹𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑹𐑧𐑀𐑒𐑩𐑄 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑏𐑔 ·𐑚𐑓𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩 𐑩𐑯 1932, 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑕𐑑𐑼đ‘Ș𐑙 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑞𐑒𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑞 𐑟𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑀 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩. [183] 𐑩𐑯 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1932 𐑞 𐑒𐑳𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑊𐑄𐑚𐑞𐑒𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑩 𐑼𐑬𐑯𐑛-𐑞-𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 đ‘’đ‘źđ‘”đ‘Ÿ. 𐑩𐑯 𐑄𐑞𐑗 1933 𐑞𐑱 đ‘Œđ‘Č𐑝𐑛 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑕𐑚𐑯 ·𐑓𐑟𐑚𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑒𐑎, 𐑑 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑩𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑝𐑩𐑟𐑩𐑑 𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑿𐑧𐑕. 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘»đ‘€đ‘œ 𐑼𐑩𐑓𐑿𐑟𐑛 𐑑 𐑜𐑮 𐑑 "𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑷𐑓𐑩𐑀 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩, 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑕", "𐑳𐑯𐑓𐑩𐑑 𐑑 đ‘œđ‘łđ‘đ‘Œđ‘Ż 𐑊𐑑𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓... đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€, đ‘•đ‘”đ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘•, 𐑒𐑟𐑔𐑛, 𐑝đ‘Č𐑩𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑑, 𐑩𐑯𐑞𐑒𐑊𐑒 𐑯 𐑾𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑼đ‘ș𐑩". [182] 𐑣𐑰 đ‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑹𐑫𐑛, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑳𐑯𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑕𐑑, 𐑯 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒, 𐑱đ‘ș 𐑣𐑰 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘’đ‘—đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑑 𐑩 𐑒𐑩𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑊 đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘• 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑧𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 ·đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘© ·𐑣𐑏𐑕. [184] 𐑣𐑹𐑼𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘”đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑕, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘œđ‘€đ‘šđ‘› 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑖𐑩𐑐 𐑕𐑱𐑀𐑛 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 đ‘Łđ‘žđ‘šđ‘Œ. [185] 𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘Ÿđ‘°đ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑯 ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑 đ‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑞 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑊𐑙 đ‘˜đ‘œ, 𐑕𐑑𐑼𐑳𐑒 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑹𐑟 "𐑞 𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩 đ‘Č'𐑝 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑩𐑯"; 𐑣𐑰 𐑻𐑥𐑛 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑐𐑰𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑄đ‘č 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑓𐑊𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑯 𐑀𐑔𐑕𐑩𐑯 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑛𐑊𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯. [186] 𐑣𐑰 𐑿𐑟𐑛 𐑞 𐑱𐑰𐑒𐑕 𐑹𐑑 𐑕𐑰 𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑰𐑑 𐑑𐑔 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿâ€” 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑳𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 ·đ‘Čđ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑊𐑒𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑒𐑚𐑀𐑱—𐑯 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑩𐑯 𐑹𐑻𐑒 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑩 𐑔𐑻𐑛, 𐑞 Â·đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘ș𐑩𐑕. [187]

𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑑 𐑓 ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑯 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑧𐑕𐑔𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑒 đ‘đ‘šđ‘€đ‘żđ‘Ÿ, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯𐑔𐑿𐑟𐑩𐑹𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑄𐑩, 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑄𐑊𐑛𐑩𐑀 𐑝 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛 𐑼𐑮𐑑 đ‘•đ‘’đ‘źđ‘°đ‘Żđ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑓 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘•đ‘đ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑄 đ‘đ‘»đ‘ đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘„đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑯 ·𐑕𐑱𐑯𐑑 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯. [188] [189] 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑄𐑱𐑛, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑳𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑕 𐑑 𐑞 𐑓đ‘čđ‘„đ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑞 𐑳𐑯𐑯𐑮𐑯 Â·đ‘œđ‘­đ‘šđ‘źđ‘Šđ‘§đ‘€ ·𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑭𐑀, 𐑣𐑔 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑐đ‘Č𐑯𐑹𐑫𐑛 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Žđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 1938. 𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑛𐑊𐑑𐑻𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑖𐑫𐑛 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑯𐑳𐑔𐑩𐑙 𐑑 𐑛𐑔 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑄, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘đ‘Źđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘• 𐑑 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑝𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑱𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑙 𐑱𐑳𐑯 ·𐑩𐑒𐑚𐑛𐑩𐑄𐑊 ·𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛 ("·đ‘Șđ‘•đ‘’đ‘Œ"); 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛 𐑓 "𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑑-𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑰𐑯𐑐𐑀𐑱" 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑳𐑀𐑑, 𐑒𐑳𐑄𐑊𐑙 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑩 𐑕đ‘č𐑕. [190] [n 23] 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑐𐑻𐑕𐑩𐑯 𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑩 ·𐑯𐑎𐑚𐑧𐑀 ·𐑐𐑟đ‘Č𐑟 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 ·đ‘Șđ‘•đ‘’đ‘Œ. [193] 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 1993 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 𐑝 𐑞 ·đ‘Șđ‘•đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, ·𐑚𐑯𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑊 ·𐑣𐑎𐑀𐑛𐑩𐑯 đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘»đ‘đ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘„đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑔𐑯 𐑕𐑐𐑎𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑹𐑟 𐑣𐑹𐑝𐑩𐑙 "𐑀𐑊𐑓𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘Š-𐑄𐑱𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Š 𐑑 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Š". [194]

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 1930𐑟 𐑹𐑻 ·𐑕𐑊𐑄𐑚𐑩𐑀𐑰𐑯 ·𐑟𐑰𐑓𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑖𐑑 (1936), Â·đ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘°đ‘đ‘© (1936) 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 đ‘œđ‘«đ‘› ·𐑒𐑊𐑙 Â·đ‘—đ‘žđ‘€đ‘Ÿ'đ‘©đ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘œđ‘Žđ‘€đ‘›đ‘©đ‘Ż Â·đ‘›đ‘±đ‘Ÿ (1939). 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑, 𐑩 𐑓𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑕𐑊 𐑟𐑰𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑝 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ, 𐑄𐑱𐑛 𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑞 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛, 𐑩 𐑕𐑹𐑑đ‘Čđ‘Œ đ‘Ș𐑯 Â·đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑩𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑄đ‘č 𐑯𐑮𐑑𐑩𐑕, 𐑄𐑳𐑗 𐑝 𐑩𐑑 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘“đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€. [195] 𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ, ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑐𐑚𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑊 𐑝 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑹𐑟 "𐑣đ‘ș Â·đ‘šđ‘šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ" 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑄đ‘Č𐑀𐑛, 𐑷𐑀𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑕𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑔𐑧𐑑𐑊𐑒. [178] [180] 𐑞 𐑔𐑻𐑛 𐑐𐑀𐑱, 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑕𐑑đ‘č𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑕𐑰𐑯 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑄đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘đ‘Œđ‘Ż, 𐑼𐑹𐑯 𐑚𐑟𐑰𐑓𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑄𐑱 1940. [196] Â·đ‘Ąđ‘±đ‘„đ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘‘ 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑯𐑳𐑔𐑩𐑙 𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑗 đ‘°đ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑞 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘»đ‘đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑒𐑫𐑛 𐑑𐑱𐑒 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯, 𐑯 𐑞𐑮 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 𐑯 𐑀𐑚𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑚𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑚𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 "𐑹𐑊𐑑𐑀𐑩𐑕 𐑯 đ‘Č𐑛𐑩𐑀" đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘œđ‘Žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑩𐑚𐑥𐑧𐑒𐑑. [196] đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑼𐑳𐑯𐑟 𐑯𐑳𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 𐑔𐑼𐑰 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑕𐑰𐑯 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Ż 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑧𐑕𐑑 ·𐑧𐑯𐑛 đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑑đ‘Č𐑄. [197]

𐑑𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛𐑟 𐑞 𐑧𐑯𐑛 𐑝 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛, 𐑚𐑮𐑔 Â·đ‘–đ‘·đ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯 𐑑 đ‘•đ‘łđ‘“đ‘Œ 𐑊𐑀 𐑣𐑧𐑀𐑔. ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑟𐑰𐑕𐑊𐑙𐑀𐑊 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑩𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑐𐑚𐑥𐑊𐑑'𐑕 𐑛𐑩𐑟𐑰𐑟 𐑝 𐑚𐑮𐑯, 𐑯 𐑣𐑰 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘‘ đ‘đ‘Œđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘• đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘°đ‘„đ‘Ÿ. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑑𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑, 𐑩𐑯𐑝đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘đ‘Šđ‘™ đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑀 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Œ, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑚𐑼𐑰𐑗 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑝𐑧𐑡𐑩𐑑đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑒𐑼𐑰𐑛 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑯 𐑚𐑟𐑷𐑑 𐑛𐑬𐑯 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑛𐑧𐑄𐑯𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑄𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝𐑧𐑡𐑩𐑑đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ. [198]

𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 ·𐑹đ‘č 𐑯 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑐𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒𐑞𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑰𐑝𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞𐑬𐑑 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘±đ‘‘ đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘”đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘»đ‘€đ‘œ đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑼𐑩𐑝đ‘Č𐑝𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑧𐑕𐑑 ·𐑧𐑯𐑛 𐑔𐑟𐑔𐑏𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 ·𐑹đ‘č, 𐑕𐑑𐑾𐑩𐑙 𐑕𐑳𐑗 đ‘šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑰𐑛𐑊𐑔 Â·đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 Â·đ‘œđ‘°đ‘€đ‘œđ‘«đ‘›, Â·đ‘›đ‘§đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘© ·𐑒𐑻 𐑯 ·𐑟đ‘Șđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘ ·𐑛𐑳𐑯𐑚𐑑. [199] 𐑩𐑯 1944 𐑯đ‘Č𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑛 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯, 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 Â·đ‘žđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑟𐑚𐑀𐑓 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘›đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ż, ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 Â·đ‘Žđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘±, ·𐑕𐑊𐑚𐑩𐑀 ·𐑔đ‘č𐑯𐑛đ‘Č𐑒 𐑯 Â·đ‘„đ‘žđ‘œđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘‘ ·𐑀𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑀𐑰𐑛𐑊𐑙 đ‘źđ‘Žđ‘€đ‘Ÿ. 𐑑𐑔 đ‘‘đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ đ‘’đ‘łđ‘„đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑑𐑫𐑒 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑷𐑀 𐑼𐑬𐑯𐑛 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯. [200] 𐑞 𐑼𐑩𐑝đ‘Čđ‘đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑐𐑿𐑀𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑑𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑑 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 𐑩 𐑯𐑿 𐑐𐑀𐑱, 𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑓𐑊𐑒 đ‘Ąđ‘»đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. [201] 𐑩 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑄 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑭𐑀, Â·đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ ·𐑚𐑞𐑚𐑟𐑩 (1941), 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑀𐑧𐑕 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑯 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑻𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑞𐑹𐑯 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘„đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż, 𐑐𐑞𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑚𐑩𐑒đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑝 ·𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑭𐑀'𐑟 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑛𐑩𐑼𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑙, 𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑳𐑯𐑕𐑔𐑑𐑩𐑛. [202]

"𐑞 𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑒𐑱đ‘Č𐑩𐑑 𐑯 𐑕đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑đ‘ș𐑩. 𐑞 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑕 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑱đ‘Č𐑓 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑄đ‘č 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑀𐑊 𐑓𐑧𐑀𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑊𐑄𐑚𐑥𐑊𐑯𐑛 𐑧𐑯𐑩 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑕 𐑒𐑫𐑛 𐑚𐑰: 𐑓 𐑣𐑰 𐑐𐑼đ‘Č𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑩 𐑕𐑑𐑎𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑓đ‘č𐑑𐑩𐑑𐑿𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑷𐑀 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑕 𐑯 𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑓đ‘č𐑗𐑔𐑯."

𐑕𐑑 ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 Â·đ‘»đ‘đ‘Č𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷, 1959 [3]

·𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑊𐑙 𐑞 𐑏𐑑𐑚𐑟𐑱𐑒 𐑝 𐑱đ‘č đ‘Ș𐑯 3 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1939 𐑯 𐑞 𐑼𐑹𐑐𐑩𐑛 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑙𐑒𐑱𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑝 ·𐑐𐑎𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑛, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘©đ‘’đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘› 𐑝 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘“đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑱𐑧𐑯, 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 ·𐑯𐑿 ·𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑕𐑄𐑩𐑯 𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀, 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑀đ‘ș𐑛 𐑞 𐑱đ‘č đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑛𐑊𐑄𐑭𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑓𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕. [203] đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘žđ‘©đ‘€đ‘§đ‘•, 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩 đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Žđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑊𐑄𐑐đ‘Ș𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀, 𐑣𐑰 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑻𐑥𐑛 𐑞 𐑯𐑿𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑀 ·𐑿𐑯đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑛 ·𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑕 𐑑 𐑥𐑶𐑯 𐑞 𐑓đ‘Č𐑑. [202] 𐑞 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑕 𐑝 1940–41 𐑀𐑧𐑛 𐑞 Â·đ‘–đ‘·đ‘Ÿ, 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑩𐑯 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑄𐑊𐑛-đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ, 𐑑 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑓𐑫𐑀-𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑱𐑩𐑑 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕. đ‘°đ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑞𐑱 𐑹𐑻 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑊𐑄𐑿𐑯 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑧𐑯𐑩𐑄𐑊 đ‘ș đ‘źđ‘±đ‘›đ‘Ÿ, 𐑯 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑠𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑯𐑚𐑯𐑕𐑊 Â·đ‘šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑻 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩 𐑣𐑬𐑕, ·𐑒𐑀đ‘Čđ‘đ‘›đ‘©đ‘Ż. [204] 𐑩𐑯 1943, 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑚đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑙 đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œ, 𐑞 Â·đ‘–đ‘·đ‘Ÿ đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘› 𐑚𐑹𐑒 𐑑 ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑑𐑣𐑷𐑀 ·𐑒đ‘č𐑑, 𐑱đ‘ș 𐑄𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑣𐑧𐑀𐑐 𐑓 ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑄đ‘č đ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Š đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ąđ‘›. 𐑣𐑻 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘œđ‘œđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘›, 𐑯 𐑖𐑰 𐑛đ‘Č𐑛 𐑩𐑯 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ. [204]

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑑𐑼𐑰𐑑𐑩𐑕, Â·đ‘§đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘šđ‘Ș𐑛𐑩'𐑟 ·𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑'𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯 1944. ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑟 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑹𐑟 "𐑩 𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑙 đ‘Żđ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘... 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑼𐑩𐑐𐑰𐑑𐑕 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘œđ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż đ‘šđ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑧𐑀𐑕𐑹đ‘ș 𐑯 𐑞𐑧𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑐𐑰𐑑𐑕 𐑊𐑑𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓". [205] 𐑞 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑕𐑎𐑀𐑛 𐑹𐑧𐑀—85,000 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑐𐑩𐑟 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑧𐑯𐑛 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘˜đ‘œ. [205] đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ'𐑟 𐑕𐑔𐑊𐑕đ‘Č𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑄𐑱 1945, ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘©đ‘đ‘źđ‘”đ‘đ‘› 𐑝 𐑞 𐑓đ‘č𐑄𐑩𐑀 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Žđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘Șđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 𐑑𐑰𐑖𐑩x, ·𐑱𐑄𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑰 Â·đ‘đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Œđ‘©, 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑥𐑻𐑄𐑩𐑯 𐑧𐑄𐑚𐑩𐑕𐑊 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯. [206] 𐑖𐑷 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘©đ‘đ‘źđ‘”đ‘đ‘› 𐑝 𐑞 𐑐𐑮𐑕𐑑𐑱đ‘č 𐑑𐑼đ‘Čđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 𐑛𐑊𐑓𐑰𐑑𐑩𐑛 ·𐑥𐑻𐑄𐑩𐑯 đ‘€đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑹𐑒𐑑 𐑝 𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓-𐑼đ‘Č𐑗𐑩𐑕𐑯𐑩𐑕: "𐑱𐑰 𐑾 𐑷𐑀 𐑐𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀 đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘„đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ". [207]

·𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑭𐑀 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘œđ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑩 𐑔𐑻𐑛 đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š 𐑑 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑄 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑱𐑩𐑞 Â·đ‘•đ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘Œ 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑎𐑐𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑩 (1945). 𐑩𐑑 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑 𐑔𐑼𐑰 𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑑𐑕 đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑚𐑳𐑥𐑩𐑑 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑟𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 "𐑞 đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑚𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀 đ‘“đ‘±đ‘€đ‘˜đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑄𐑩". [208] 𐑞 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑄 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑰𐑝𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒𐑕, 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑝𐑿𐑟 𐑹𐑻 đ‘“đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘€đ‘œ. 𐑖𐑷 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑩𐑑𐑕 đ‘€đ‘šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘• 𐑯𐑳𐑀𐑊𐑓đ‘Č𐑛 𐑞 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩, 𐑯 𐑣𐑰 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑞 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑄 "𐑩 đ‘đ‘«đ‘Œ 𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑩𐑀 B. 𐑛𐑰 ·𐑄𐑰𐑀". [209]

View of modest-sized country house from extensive gardens
đ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 ·𐑒đ‘čđ‘Żđ‘Œ

𐑩𐑯 1946, 𐑞 đ‘˜đ‘œ 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑯đ‘Čđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Ÿđ‘” 𐑚𐑻𐑔𐑛𐑱, 𐑣𐑰 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑓𐑟𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑄 𐑝 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 𐑯 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 𐑓𐑟𐑰𐑄𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 𐑚𐑳𐑟𐑩 𐑝 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑐𐑭𐑯𐑒𐑟𐑭𐑕, ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯. [3] 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑱𐑄 đ‘˜đ‘œ 𐑞 đ‘œđ‘łđ‘đ‘Œđ‘Żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑭𐑕𐑒𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑯𐑓đ‘č𐑄𐑩𐑀𐑊 đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑣𐑰 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑 𐑞 ·đ‘čđ‘›đ‘Œ 𐑝 ·𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑑. 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑀đ‘Č𐑯𐑛, đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘°đ‘đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑯 đ‘·đ‘”đ‘Œ'𐑟 𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑑 𐑒𐑫𐑛 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑚𐑰 𐑛𐑊𐑑𐑻𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑𐑿𐑄𐑩𐑕 đ‘đ‘»đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘ 𐑝 đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Š. [210] [n 24] 1946 𐑕𐑷 𐑞 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯, 𐑹𐑟 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑟đ‘Č𐑄 𐑝 Â·đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘, 𐑝 𐑞 𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑓𐑩𐑕 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 20 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ đ‘đ‘źđ‘°đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘•đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑑 𐑩 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 𐑝 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ż đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ. 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑱đ‘Č𐑛𐑀𐑊 đ‘đ‘źđ‘±đ‘Ÿđ‘›; 𐑩 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘żđ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 ·𐑥𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒 ·𐑣𐑧𐑀𐑔 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑩𐑑 𐑊𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑼𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑓 𐑧𐑯𐑩 𐑕𐑑𐑿𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑡𐑳𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑕 𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑄. [211]

𐑖𐑷 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑛 𐑑 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑯đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑟. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑀𐑭𐑕𐑑 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 ·𐑚𐑶𐑩𐑯𐑑 Â·đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ (1947), 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑓𐑫𐑀-𐑀𐑧𐑙𐑔 𐑹𐑻𐑒; 𐑓𐑾𐑓𐑧𐑗𐑑 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ (1948) 𐑩 𐑕𐑧𐑑 𐑝 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕 𐑖đ‘č𐑑 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑼𐑰𐑝𐑩𐑟𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑙 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘»đ‘€đ‘œ đ‘”đ‘°đ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑹𐑟 đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘”đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż; 𐑩 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑒 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑓 𐑐𐑳𐑐𐑩𐑑𐑕, ·𐑖𐑱𐑒𐑕 đ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘©đ‘• Shav (1949), 𐑩 𐑑𐑧𐑯-𐑄đ‘Č𐑯𐑿𐑑 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ 𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑛 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑳𐑀𐑑𐑕; [212] 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Č 𐑖𐑰 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 (1950), 𐑱𐑩𐑗 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑹𐑟 "𐑩 𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑛𐑊", 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑱𐑰𐑒 𐑖đ‘č𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑯đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑩-𐑓đ‘č𐑔 𐑚𐑻𐑔𐑛𐑱. [213]

đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑊𐑯𐑥𐑶𐑛 𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑞 đ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 ·𐑒đ‘čđ‘Żđ‘Œ. 𐑣𐑰 𐑛đ‘Č𐑛 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑱𐑥 𐑝 𐑯đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑩-𐑓đ‘č 𐑝 𐑟𐑰𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘“đ‘±đ‘€đ‘˜đ‘Œ 𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑐𐑊𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Ąđ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑻𐑛 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑓𐑷𐑀𐑊𐑙 𐑱đ‘Č𐑀 𐑐𐑟𐑔𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑩 𐑑𐑼𐑰. [213] 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑹𐑑 Â·đ‘œđ‘Žđ‘€đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘œđ‘źđ‘°đ‘Ż ·𐑒𐑟𐑧𐑄𐑩𐑑đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘„ đ‘Ș𐑯 6 đ‘Żđ‘Žđ‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1950. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ÿ, 𐑄𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞𐑮𐑟 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑, 𐑹𐑻 đ‘•đ‘’đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑩𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 đ‘“đ‘«đ‘‘đ‘đ‘­đ‘žđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 đ‘Œđ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘› 𐑞 𐑕𐑑𐑹𐑗𐑿 𐑝 ·𐑕𐑱𐑯𐑑 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞đ‘ș đ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘©đ‘Ż. [214] [215]

𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

Â·đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑖𐑷 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩 𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑊𐑛𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 1934, 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑟đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑙 𐑓đ‘č𐑑𐑩-𐑑𐑔 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕. [216] 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑩 đ‘“đ‘»đ‘žđ‘Œ đ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘€đ‘ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑰𐑯 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓, 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑱𐑳𐑯-𐑹𐑒𐑑 đ‘đ‘°đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ. 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 𐑱𐑑 đ‘»đ‘€đ‘œ đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑗𐑮𐑟 𐑑 𐑎𐑄𐑊𐑑 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕, 𐑞 𐑑𐑎𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑟 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑩-𐑑𐑔. [n 25]

·𐑻𐑀𐑊 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑔𐑼𐑰 𐑓𐑫𐑀-𐑀𐑧𐑙𐑔 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑛𐑧𐑀𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑖𐑿𐑟. 𐑣𐑰 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘œđ‘źđ‘”đ‘đ‘‘ 𐑞𐑧𐑄 𐑹𐑟 "đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘đ‘€đ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘". [217] đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Žđ‘Œ'𐑟 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Źđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ÿ (1892) đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘»đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑞 𐑀𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑀đ‘č𐑛𐑟 𐑝 𐑕𐑀𐑳𐑄 𐑐𐑼đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ, 𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘›đ‘żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 ·𐑯𐑿 ·𐑹𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑯—𐑩 𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑻𐑊𐑙 đ‘“đ‘°đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑝 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ. [218] 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Œ (1893) đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘• 𐑞 𐑔𐑰𐑄 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑿 ·𐑹𐑫𐑄𐑩𐑯, đ‘›đ‘źđ‘·đ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑊𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑯, 𐑯 𐑣𐑹𐑟 𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑐𐑻𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐𐑕, 𐑞 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 Â·đ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑰𐑩𐑙 𐑚𐑱𐑕𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑥𐑧𐑯𐑊 Â·đ‘đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ż. [219] 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 2003 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 ·𐑥𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑔 Â·đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑟 Â·đ‘„đ‘•đ‘Ÿ ·𐑹đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯'𐑟 ·𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯 (1893) 𐑹𐑟 "𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑏𐑑𐑩𐑛𐑀𐑊 𐑞 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑗𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑥𐑊𐑙" 𐑝 𐑞 𐑔𐑼𐑰 Â·đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘đ‘€đ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘, 𐑑𐑱𐑒𐑊𐑙 Â·đ‘„đ‘•đ‘Ÿ ·𐑹đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯'𐑟 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯—𐑐𐑟đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑑𐑿𐑑 𐑯, đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑚𐑼đ‘Ș𐑔𐑩𐑀-đ‘Žđ‘Żđ‘Œâ€”đ‘šđ‘Ÿ 𐑩 𐑄𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑓 𐑩 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑑𐑿𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊. [220]

𐑖𐑷 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑛 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑩𐑥𐑊 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛, 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑹𐑟 "đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘đ‘€đ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘". [217] đ‘žđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 (1894) đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘°đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑩𐑯𐑰𐑔 𐑩 𐑄đ‘Ș𐑒-Â·đ‘źđ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑒 𐑟𐑎𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑕 𐑩 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑐𐑚𐑟𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑭𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 đ‘đ‘źđ‘šđ‘œđ‘„đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’ đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. [221] 𐑞 𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑀 𐑔𐑰𐑄 𐑝 ·𐑒𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑛𐑩 (1894) 𐑩𐑟 𐑩 𐑹𐑫𐑄𐑩𐑯'𐑟 𐑗𐑶𐑕 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 𐑑𐑔 𐑄𐑧𐑯; 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑭𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑞 𐑏𐑑𐑀𐑫𐑒 𐑯 đ‘šđ‘•đ‘đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑩 ·𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑗𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑯 𐑩 𐑐𐑮𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑒 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘. [222] 𐑞 𐑔𐑻𐑛 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘đ‘€đ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ đ‘œđ‘źđ‘”đ‘, 𐑿 Â·đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑹𐑯 ·𐑑𐑧𐑀 (1896), 𐑐đ‘čđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑄𐑎𐑚𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊, 𐑯 𐑞 𐑜𐑹𐑐 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, đ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑬 𐑞𐑱 𐑩𐑐𐑟𐑎𐑗 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑯 𐑄𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ. [223]

𐑞 "𐑔𐑼𐑰 Â·đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑓 Â·đ‘đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ"—𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑟đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑙 𐑞 Â·đ‘›đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€'𐑟 ·𐑛𐑊𐑕đ‘Č𐑐𐑩𐑀 (1896), Â·đ‘•đ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘Œ 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑎𐑐𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑩 (1898) 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑚𐑐𐑑𐑊𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑭𐑕𐑚𐑏𐑯𐑛'𐑟 Â·đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘»đ‘ đ‘©đ‘Ż (1899)—𐑷𐑀 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘Ș𐑯 đ‘’đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘•đ‘—đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑧𐑄𐑐đ‘Čđ‘Œ 𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ 𐑑đ‘Ș𐑐𐑩𐑒 𐑝 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒đ‘č𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 1890𐑟. [224] 𐑞 𐑔𐑼𐑰 𐑾 𐑕𐑧𐑑, đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘đ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘€đ‘Š, 𐑩𐑯 1770𐑟 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩, ·𐑱𐑯𐑗𐑩𐑯𐑑 ·𐑰𐑥𐑊𐑐𐑑, 𐑯 1890𐑟 Â·đ‘„đ‘Œđ‘Ș𐑒𐑮. [225] 𐑞 Â·đ‘œđ‘šđ‘›đ‘“đ‘€đ‘Č, 𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑛𐑚𐑐𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑧𐑔𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘đ‘¶đ‘Żđ‘°đ‘–, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑳𐑯𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑖𐑑 𐑯 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘č𐑄𐑛. [226] 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑛𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑊 (1895) 𐑩𐑟 𐑩 𐑖đ‘č𐑑 𐑒𐑻𐑑𐑩𐑯 đ‘źđ‘±đ‘Ÿđ‘Œ 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 Â·đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘đ‘Žđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż. [227]

1900–1909[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

1900–1909

·𐑓𐑫𐑀-𐑀𐑧𐑙𐑔 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ

·𐑖đ‘č𐑑 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ

·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Ÿđ‘” đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑩𐑛𐑟𐑧𐑕 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀, 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘č 𐑧𐑔𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑖𐑿𐑟. 𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑯 Â·đ‘•đ‘”đ‘đ‘Œđ‘„đ‘šđ‘Ż (1902) 𐑕𐑑𐑹𐑯𐑛𐑟 𐑩𐑐𐑞𐑑 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑 𐑯 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑑𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑, 𐑜𐑩𐑝𐑩𐑙 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑻𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘”đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑚𐑊𐑯𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩 𐑯 𐑩𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑊𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑑𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑑. [228] 𐑞 Â·đ‘šđ‘›đ‘„đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ Â·đ‘šđ‘šđ‘–đ‘đ‘Šđ‘€ (1901), 𐑩 𐑚𐑀𐑚𐑙𐑒 đ‘đ‘»đ‘• 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑đ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€ ·𐑒𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑀 ·𐑚đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑯'𐑟 ·𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯, đ‘“đ‘Žđ‘’đ‘©đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑯 ·𐑚𐑓𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩. [229] 𐑡đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑚𐑫𐑀'𐑟 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ ·đ‘Č𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑛 (1904), 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑛𐑩𐑐𐑩𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑞 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑯 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑓𐑧𐑀 𐑬𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘źđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘ž 𐑩𐑯 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ. [230] đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ ·𐑚𐑞𐑚𐑟𐑩 (1905) 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑟𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑧𐑔𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘’đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘•đ‘—đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑹𐑱, 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑓𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑙 đ‘§đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑛𐑊𐑐𐑊𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑩𐑯 𐑞𐑄𐑩𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘żđ‘“đ‘šđ‘’đ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Œ đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑣𐑹𐑯𐑛 𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘•đ‘šđ‘€đ‘đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż ·𐑞𐑄𐑊 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑄đ‘č𐑩𐑀 𐑣đ‘Č 𐑜𐑼𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑄𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑯𐑝đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘šđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑚𐑰 𐑣𐑧𐑀𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œ. [231] 𐑞 ·𐑛đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ'𐑟 ·𐑛𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑄𐑩 (1906), 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑄𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑧𐑔𐑩𐑒𐑕 𐑯 𐑄đ‘č𐑩𐑀 đ‘—đ‘¶đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑕𐑒đ‘ș𐑕 𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑑𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑥𐑩𐑛𐑊. [232] 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑟𐑧𐑐𐑿𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑓 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑟𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑙 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑔 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑓𐑀𐑧𐑖 𐑯 𐑚𐑀𐑳𐑛, [233] 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑗𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑥𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘žđ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑟𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑯-𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥 𐑛𐑧𐑔, 𐑯 đ‘Łđ‘œ 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑕𐑮, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑛𐑧𐑔𐑚𐑧𐑛 𐑕𐑰𐑯 𐑓 𐑞 𐑹𐑯𐑑𐑩-đ‘Łđ‘œđ‘Ž. [234] [235]

𐑜𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑙 ·𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑛 (1908) 𐑯 ·𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑩𐑀đ‘Č𐑩𐑯𐑕 (1909)—𐑞 đ‘€đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑕𐑰𐑯 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑥𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑔 Â·đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘„đ‘đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑑 𐑞 𐑓đ‘čđ‘„đ‘Œâ€”đ‘ž 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑩𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 "đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘’đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘ș𐑩" đ‘đ‘±đ‘Ż, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑧𐑄𐑓𐑩𐑕𐑊𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑒𐑳𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ đ‘źđ‘­đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞𐑹𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑛𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑚𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑩𐑝𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕 đ‘č 𐑝𐑩𐑝𐑩𐑛 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż. [236] 𐑖𐑷 𐑼𐑮𐑑 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑖đ‘č𐑑 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛; 𐑞𐑱 𐑾 𐑷𐑀 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘„đ‘©đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ, 𐑟𐑱𐑯𐑥𐑊𐑙 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑻𐑛 ·𐑐𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯, Â·đ‘đ‘¶đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑯 ·𐑐𐑧𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑓𐑚𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 (1905) 𐑑 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 ·𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑕 Â·đ‘’đ‘łđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Ÿ (1909). [237]

1910–1919[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

1910–1919

·𐑓𐑫𐑀–𐑀𐑧𐑙𐑔 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ

·𐑖đ‘č𐑑 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ

𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑒𐑱𐑛 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 1910 𐑑 𐑞 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘„đ‘šđ‘” 𐑝 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 ·𐑹đ‘č ·𐑖𐑷 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑓đ‘č 𐑓𐑫𐑀-𐑀𐑧𐑙𐑔 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ, 𐑞 𐑔𐑻𐑛 𐑯 𐑓đ‘č𐑔 𐑝 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑾 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑓𐑟𐑰𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑛 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕. [238] 𐑓𐑹𐑯𐑩'𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 ·𐑐𐑀𐑱 (1911) đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘żđ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘»đ‘€đ‘œ đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘šđ‘„đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑄𐑊𐑛𐑩𐑀-𐑒𐑀𐑭𐑕 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑩 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘đ‘żđ‘đ‘¶đ‘Żđ‘‘, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩𐑛𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘—đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑄𐑧𐑀𐑩𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑧𐑐𐑊𐑀đ‘Ș𐑜 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒𐑕 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑳𐑕 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱. [78] Â·đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘€đ‘°đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑩𐑯 (1912), 𐑱𐑩𐑗 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑓 𐑗𐑊𐑀𐑛𐑟𐑩𐑯, 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑩 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘Żđ‘±đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯 𐑯 𐑣𐑬 𐑑 𐑐𐑫𐑑 ·𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑗𐑩𐑯 𐑐𐑼𐑰𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑𐑕 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 𐑐𐑼𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑕. [239] Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘„đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż (1912) 𐑩𐑟 𐑩 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 𐑝 đ‘€đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ą 𐑯 𐑕𐑐𐑰𐑗 𐑯 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑊𐑄𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑐𐑻𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐𐑕. 𐑑 đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘ 𐑞 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘čđ‘„đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑛 𐑩 𐑟𐑎𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 𐑞 𐑑𐑔 𐑄𐑱𐑯 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ ·𐑖𐑷 𐑼𐑰𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑞 𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑑 𐑄𐑱𐑒 𐑩𐑑 đ‘’đ‘€đ‘œ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑣𐑧𐑼𐑮𐑩𐑯 𐑹𐑊𐑀 𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊 đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ, 𐑄đ‘Čđ‘Żđ‘Œ đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ. [240] [n 26] ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑓𐑫𐑀-𐑀𐑧𐑙𐑔 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 𐑱đ‘č đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑟 ·𐑣𐑞𐑑𐑚𐑟𐑱𐑒 ·𐑣𐑏𐑕 (1917), 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘ąđ‘»đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑛𐑩𐑐𐑩𐑒𐑑𐑕 "đ‘’đ‘łđ‘€đ‘—đ‘Œđ‘›, đ‘€đ‘§đ‘ đ‘Œđ‘› Â·đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘ 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑞 𐑱đ‘č" 𐑛𐑼𐑩𐑓𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑑𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛𐑟 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘­đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ. [242] 𐑖𐑷 𐑯𐑱𐑄𐑛 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ( ·𐑒𐑊𐑙 Â·đ‘€đ‘œ) 𐑯 ·𐑗𐑧𐑒đ‘Ș𐑓( 𐑞 ·𐑗𐑧𐑟𐑊 ·đ‘čđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘›) 𐑹𐑟 𐑊𐑄𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘“đ‘€đ‘”đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 𐑐𐑰𐑕, 𐑯 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒𐑕 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑛𐑟𐑷𐑊𐑙 đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑒đ‘Ș𐑙𐑜𐑼𐑰𐑝( 𐑞 𐑹𐑱 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛) 𐑯 ·𐑊𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑯( 𐑞 Â·đ‘„đ‘­đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ Â·đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘›đ‘Œ). [242] [243]

𐑞 𐑖đ‘č𐑑 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑟𐑱𐑯𐑥 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 đ‘Ąđ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑣𐑩𐑕𐑑đ‘č𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑛𐑞𐑒 ·𐑀𐑱𐑛𐑊 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑕đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑯 Â·đ‘œđ‘źđ‘±đ‘‘ ·𐑒𐑚𐑔𐑟𐑊𐑯 (1910 𐑯 1913) 𐑑 𐑩 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 𐑝 đ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘„đ‘Š 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œđ‘źđ‘”đ‘€đ‘›; 𐑔𐑼𐑰 𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑞 𐑱đ‘č( 𐑞 ·𐑊𐑙𐑒𐑩 𐑝 Â·đ‘đ‘Œđ‘”đ‘•đ‘©đ‘€đ‘§đ‘„, ·𐑎'đ‘“đ‘€đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Š V.C. 𐑯 Â·đ‘©đ‘œđ‘łđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘• Â·đ‘›đ‘łđ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 ·𐑚𐑊𐑑, 1915–16); 𐑩 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 "đ‘łđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕"( 𐑞 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ Â·đ‘’đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œ, 1914) 𐑯 𐑩 𐑚𐑼𐑰𐑓 𐑕𐑒𐑧𐑗 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑩 "Â·đ‘šđ‘Žđ‘€đ‘–đ‘§đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑕"( ·𐑭𐑯𐑩𐑥𐑭𐑕𐑒𐑩, 1917). [244]

1920–1950[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

1920–1950

·𐑓𐑫𐑀 𐑀𐑧𐑙𐑔 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ

·𐑖đ‘č𐑑 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ

·𐑕𐑱𐑯𐑑 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯 (1923) 𐑛𐑟𐑔 𐑱đ‘Č𐑛𐑕𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑛 đ‘đ‘źđ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑓 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑯 𐑓 ·𐑕𐑊𐑚𐑩𐑀 ·𐑔đ‘č𐑯𐑛đ‘Č𐑒, 𐑓 𐑣𐑔𐑄 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑞 𐑑đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑟𐑎𐑀 𐑯 𐑣𐑔 𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑐𐑾𐑑 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯. [245] 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑝𐑿 𐑝 𐑞 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑩𐑕 Â·đ‘œđ‘źđ‘°đ‘Ż, ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯, 𐑩 "𐑯𐑮-𐑯đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕 𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑒, ·𐑐𐑟đ‘Ș𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑯 𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑣𐑻 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄" 𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑞 20𐑔 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š'𐑟 𐑒𐑀𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑒 𐑀𐑰𐑛𐑊𐑙 𐑓𐑰𐑄𐑱𐑀 đ‘źđ‘Žđ‘€đ‘Ÿ. [241] 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑐𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒𐑞𐑑 (1929) 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑀𐑭𐑕𐑑 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕. [246] 𐑣𐑰 đ‘œđ‘±đ‘ 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑯 𐑩𐑑𐑕 đ‘•đ‘©đ‘’đ‘•đ‘§đ‘•đ‘Œ, ·𐑑𐑔 ·𐑑𐑟𐑔 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 đ‘œđ‘«đ‘› (1931), 𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑑đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑀 "𐑩 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘šđ‘đ‘©đ‘œđ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘©", 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑞 𐑑𐑔 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘“đ‘Œ đ‘œđ‘źđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑩𐑯 𐑞đ‘ș đ‘”đ‘°đ‘„đ‘Ÿ; 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑟𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑞 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕 𐑝 𐑩 𐑯𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 (𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑚𐑼𐑰𐑓 𐑟𐑶𐑩𐑀 đ‘€đ‘łđ‘-𐑕𐑰𐑯 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘”đ‘›) 𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛, 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑥𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑔 Â·đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ'đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘ąđ‘»đ‘›đ‘Ÿ, "𐑩𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑄đ‘čđ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€, 𐑯 𐑩𐑟 𐑯𐑧𐑚𐑿𐑀𐑩𐑕." [247] 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 1930𐑟 𐑹𐑻 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑖𐑹𐑛𐑮 𐑝 𐑹𐑻𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Żđ‘šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑝𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕. 𐑱𐑳𐑯𐑕 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Ż, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑟đ‘Ș𐑒𐑕 (1933) 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑳𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 ·đ‘Čđ‘€đ‘Ÿ (1934), 𐑩 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑛𐑊 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘€đ‘œ 𐑐𐑀đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘•đ‘đ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩. 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑐đ‘čđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑩 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑐𐑼đ‘Č𐑄 đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑼𐑩𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑙, 𐑞 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑩 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘; 𐑞 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑩𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 đ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘„đ‘Š 𐑯 𐑿𐑡𐑧𐑯𐑩𐑒𐑕 𐑯 𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑟 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑛𐑱 𐑝 ·𐑥𐑳𐑥𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑. [248]

𐑞 Â·đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘ș𐑩𐑕 (1934) 𐑩𐑟 𐑩 𐑓𐑞𐑕𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑛𐑊𐑐𐑊𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑻𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑯 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑓đ‘ș𐑟 𐑝 𐑩 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀 đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘•đ‘ąđ‘«đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Ż. Â·đ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘°đ‘đ‘© (1936) đ‘€đ‘šđ‘„đ‘đ‘”đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑞 𐑓𐑰𐑚𐑩𐑀𐑯𐑩𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘€đ‘°đ‘œ 𐑝 Â·đ‘Żđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐đ‘ș𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 Â·đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘. 𐑩𐑯 đ‘œđ‘«đ‘› ·𐑒𐑊𐑙 Â·đ‘—đ‘žđ‘€đ‘Ÿ'đ‘©đ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘œđ‘Žđ‘€đ‘›đ‘©đ‘Ż Â·đ‘›đ‘±đ‘Ÿ (1939), 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑱đ‘č𐑄, đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘’đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑣đ‘Č 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑛𐑊, 𐑷𐑀𐑕𐑎 𐑛𐑩𐑐𐑩𐑒𐑑𐑕 𐑷𐑔đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑑đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑀𐑧𐑕 𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑞𐑹𐑯 Â·đ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘°đ‘đ‘©. [7] 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑯 đ‘»đ‘€đ‘œ đ‘›đ‘§đ‘’đ‘±đ‘›đ‘Ÿ, 𐑞 𐑖đ‘čđ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘„đ‘©đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ, 𐑕𐑳𐑄 𐑣𐑩𐑕𐑑đ‘č𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑯 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑛𐑟𐑧𐑕𐑊𐑙 𐑝đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘• 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑯 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑐𐑼𐑰đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘żđ‘đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘·đ‘”đ‘Œ. Â·đ‘»đ‘đ‘Č𐑯 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑀 "𐑩𐑕𐑑đ‘Ș𐑯𐑊𐑖𐑊𐑙𐑀𐑊 đ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘• 𐑯 đ‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘•" 𐑩𐑑 𐑖𐑮𐑛 𐑳𐑯𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑒𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑕đ‘Č𐑯𐑟 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑱𐑥. "𐑞 𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑩𐑯 𐑞𐑩𐑕 đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘›, Â·đ‘Łđ‘Źđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓𐑫𐑀 𐑝 đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘›đ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 𐑞 𐑚𐑿𐑑𐑩 𐑝 𐑄đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑎𐑀𐑛 𐑄𐑧𐑯 𐑣𐑔 𐑒𐑰𐑐 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑱𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑞𐑧𐑄." [3]

đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑯 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩 𐑼𐑩𐑝𐑿𐑟[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑔𐑼𐑰 𐑝đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘żđ‘„đ‘Ÿ, 𐑼𐑳𐑯𐑟 𐑑 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 2,700 đ‘đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘©đ‘Ÿ. [249] 𐑩𐑑 đ‘’đ‘łđ‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑕𐑰𐑯 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 1876 𐑑 1950, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑞 𐑒đ‘č 𐑝 𐑞 𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑱𐑑𐑕 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑑𐑞 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑀𐑱𐑑 1880𐑟 𐑯 𐑻𐑀𐑊 1890𐑟. 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑝𐑿 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑖𐑫𐑛 𐑚𐑰 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑑 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩𐑱𐑳𐑯 đ‘źđ‘­đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑡𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑞 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑊𐑀𐑰𐑑, 𐑯 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑓 𐑞 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑯-𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑, đ‘©đ‘đ‘¶đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑑𐑧𐑒𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘Ąđ‘žđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Żâ€”" Â·đ‘„đ‘§đ‘•đ‘©đ‘đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘±đ‘„đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘ąđ‘»đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑀đ‘Č𐑒'𐑞 𐑛đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝 D đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ"'. [n 27] 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘“đ‘œđ‘•đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑐𐑾𐑑𐑩𐑟𐑹𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘©đ‘„đ‘Ÿ, 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑎𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑞 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑝 Â·đ‘đ‘­đ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑛𐑩𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑩𐑙 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑝 Â·đ‘šđ‘źđ‘­đ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞𐑮𐑟 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘„đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑹𐑟 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑯 ·𐑐𐑚𐑟𐑊 𐑣𐑔𐑄 𐑣𐑰 𐑕𐑷 𐑹𐑟 Â·đ‘šđ‘źđ‘­đ‘„đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż. [67] [251] 𐑣𐑰 𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑐𐑱𐑯𐑛 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑞 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑓𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑓 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘čđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 ·𐑣𐑭𐑯𐑛𐑧𐑀 đ‘č𐑩𐑑đ‘č𐑩𐑮𐑟 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑣𐑿𐑡 đ‘šđ‘„đ‘©đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘č𐑒𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯, 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑊𐑙 𐑓 "𐑩 𐑒đ‘č𐑩𐑕 𐑝 𐑑𐑱𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩 𐑒𐑱𐑐𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑾𐑑𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑕". [252] 𐑣𐑰 𐑟𐑱𐑀𐑛 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘© đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘›đ‘łđ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑛 đ‘č 𐑕𐑳𐑙 𐑩𐑯 đ‘€đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑞 đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘• 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑕𐑐𐑰𐑒. [253]

𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

𐑩𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑝𐑿, 𐑞 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 1890𐑟 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑑𐑔 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑼𐑩𐑝đ‘Čđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑎𐑀𐑛 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑩𐑯𐑳𐑓 𐑯𐑿 𐑹𐑻𐑒. 𐑣𐑰 𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑐𐑱𐑯𐑛 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘" 𐑄𐑧𐑀𐑩𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩, 𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊, 𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑼𐑩𐑮𐑑đ‘Č𐑐𐑕 𐑯 𐑱đ‘č𐑯-𐑬𐑑 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ". [254] 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑓𐑟𐑰𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑱𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑑 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑚𐑯𐑩𐑀đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑙 𐑯𐑿 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑚𐑀đ‘Č𐑡𐑛 𐑑 𐑓𐑷𐑀 𐑚𐑹𐑒 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑳𐑕𐑩𐑙 𐑣𐑬 𐑝đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘• đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘čđ‘„đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑑𐑚𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑛 𐑹𐑧𐑀-𐑯𐑮𐑯 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ. 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒, ·𐑰. J. 𐑱𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑕 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 "𐑕𐑰𐑕𐑀𐑩𐑕𐑀𐑊 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐đ‘ș𐑛 𐑯 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑭𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑾𐑑𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑻𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑑𐑧𐑒𐑯𐑰𐑒". 𐑖𐑷 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑚𐑿𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 150 đ‘žđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 𐑓 𐑞 đ‘•đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘›đ‘± Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż, 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑩𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 212 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘›đ‘łđ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ. [255] 𐑣𐑰 đ‘—đ‘šđ‘„đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘› ·𐑊𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑯'𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘œđ‘Žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘©đ‘› 𐑞𐑧𐑄 𐑹𐑟 𐑏𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑥𐑩𐑕, 𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 1891 𐑚𐑫𐑒 ·𐑒𐑹𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑝 Â·đ‘Šđ‘šđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑩 𐑒𐑀𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑒 𐑔𐑟𐑔𐑏𐑑 𐑞 đ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Ÿđ‘” đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š. [256] 𐑝 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑓 𐑞 ·𐑹𐑧𐑕𐑑 ·𐑧𐑯𐑛 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥 𐑣𐑰 𐑟𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 ·đ‘Șđ‘•đ‘’đ‘Œ ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑀𐑛 đ‘©đ‘šđ‘łđ‘ 𐑞 𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑑:"... đ‘Źđ‘Œ 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑔𐑳𐑼𐑮 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑. 𐑣𐑰 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩𐑔𐑩𐑙: 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑱𐑩𐑑, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑓𐑊𐑀đ‘Ș𐑕𐑩𐑓𐑊, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 đ‘šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘•, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑣𐑎𐑀 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ". [257] 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑹𐑟 đ‘Źđ‘Œ Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑯đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑯 1932. [258]

𐑖𐑷 𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑑𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑩 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑯 𐑓𐑟𐑰𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓-𐑒đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑹𐑑𐑩𐑑𐑿𐑛 𐑑 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ (đ‘Łđ‘”đ‘Ÿ 𐑯𐑱𐑄 𐑣𐑰 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑙 "Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ"). [259] 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑛𐑊𐑓𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑑 𐑑 𐑑𐑱𐑒 đ‘•đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘•đ‘€đ‘Š đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑; 𐑛𐑳𐑓 Â·đ‘’đ‘”đ‘đ‘Œ đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘»đ‘đ‘› 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑩𐑑𐑚𐑒𐑊𐑙 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ, "𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑔 đ‘©đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩 𐑟𐑊𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑿𐑀𐑩𐑕 đ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘„đ‘Š 𐑖𐑱𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑩𐑕𐑑 𐑹𐑑 𐑩 𐑄𐑏𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑯." [260] 𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟, đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘žđ‘©đ‘€đ‘§đ‘•, 𐑩 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż, 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑, "𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Žđ‘„đ‘Œ, 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑩𐑟 𐑯𐑮 𐑧𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 đ‘°đ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑻 Â·đ‘ąđ‘·đ‘€đ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑕𐑒đ‘Ș𐑑, 𐑣𐑔𐑄 đ‘Č 𐑒𐑹𐑯 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑟 𐑕𐑮 𐑩𐑯𐑑đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑹𐑟 đ‘Č 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑟 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ 𐑱𐑧𐑯 đ‘Č đ‘„đ‘§đ‘ đ‘Œ 𐑄đ‘Č 𐑄đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑣𐑩𐑟," 𐑣𐑰 𐑷𐑀𐑕𐑎 𐑕𐑧𐑛, "𐑚𐑳𐑑 đ‘Č 𐑚𐑄 𐑚𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑑 𐑹𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘Č 𐑐𐑩𐑑𐑩 𐑞 𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑣𐑔 𐑒𐑹𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑊𐑯𐑥𐑶 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ. 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑟 𐑏𐑑𐑀𐑭𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘”đ‘Źđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 đ‘±đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Œ đ‘”đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑯 𐑹𐑊𐑀 𐑏𐑑𐑀𐑭𐑕𐑑 𐑩 đ‘”đ‘Źđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› 𐑄đ‘č". [259] 𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑑𐑔 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘œđ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑑𐑾𐑜𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑓 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑄đ‘č 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑄 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ: 𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙" đ‘šđ‘žđ‘›đ‘Žđ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ", 𐑯 đ‘šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘źđ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑔 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑒𐑳𐑑 𐑑𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œ-đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘šđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘‘ đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘›đ‘łđ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ. [261] [n 28] 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑛𐑟𐑷𐑯 𐑚𐑹𐑒 𐑑 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ, 𐑯 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑔𐑼𐑰 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘”đ‘°đ‘„đ‘Ÿ: 𐑞 ·𐑛𐑞𐑒 ·𐑀𐑱𐑛𐑊 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑕đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑑𐑕, ·𐑕𐑊𐑄𐑚𐑩𐑀𐑰𐑯 ·𐑟𐑰𐑓𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑯 ·𐑖𐑱𐑒𐑕 đ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘©đ‘• Shav. [265] 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 2001 𐑩𐑯𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑕𐑊𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„đ‘Ÿ, ·𐑟đ‘Șđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘ Â·đ‘đ‘œđ‘• đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘’đ‘€đ‘”đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑣𐑔 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯𐑮 𐑚𐑒𐑩𐑛𐑧𐑄𐑊𐑒, 𐑕𐑷 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ'𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿâ€”đ‘€đ‘Č𐑒 𐑷𐑀 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œâ€”đ‘“đ‘źđ‘Ș𐑄 𐑩𐑯 đ‘·đ‘”đ‘Œ'𐑟 𐑐𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑐𐑶𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑝𐑿: "𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑧𐑀𐑐𐑕 𐑳𐑕 𐑑 𐑜𐑧𐑑 𐑩𐑹𐑱 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 ·𐑟𐑎𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕' đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑝 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑑đ‘Č𐑑𐑹𐑯𐑩𐑒 đ‘Ąđ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘•, 𐑱𐑳𐑯 đ‘Łđ‘”đ‘Ÿ 𐑾𐑑 𐑒𐑹𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑚𐑯𐑩𐑀đ‘Č𐑟𐑛 đ‘č 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑄𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑱𐑯 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑔𐑊𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑑 𐑯 𐑀đ‘Ș𐑕, đ‘č 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑕𐑐𐑩𐑕𐑊𐑓𐑊𐑒 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥𐑊𐑙 𐑯 𐑒𐑭𐑕𐑑 𐑝 đ‘šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ." [266]

𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑯 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙𐑟[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑯 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑đ‘ș𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑻 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑝đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘•đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑑𐑼𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑕, 𐑩𐑯 đ‘§đ‘•đ‘±đ‘Ÿ, 𐑩𐑯 𐑑𐑔 𐑓𐑫𐑀-𐑀𐑧𐑙𐑔 𐑚𐑫𐑒𐑕, 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘żđ‘„đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘Żđ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑥𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘žđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ. 𐑞 𐑄𐑩𐑥đ‘č𐑩𐑑𐑩 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑑𐑼𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑕 𐑹𐑻 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯đ‘Ș𐑯𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑕𐑀𐑊, 𐑼𐑧𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑟𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑞 đ‘đ‘¶đ‘• 𐑝 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 đ‘źđ‘­đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊'𐑟 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑟𐑩𐑑đ‘ș𐑩 Â·đ‘§đ‘›đ‘ąđ‘Œđ‘› Â·đ‘đ‘°đ‘Ÿ đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑓𐑻𐑄𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘·đ‘”đ‘Œđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘. [47] 𐑩𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑑 ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛, 𐑞 đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘• 𐑝 𐑞 𐑻𐑀𐑊 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, 𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑀𐑊 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑑 "đ‘·đ‘€đ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑼𐑰𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑩𐑑". [267] 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑑𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘đ‘šđ‘„đ‘“đ‘€đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘œ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑫𐑑 𐑑 đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘‘ 𐑿𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊'𐑟 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘“đ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Žâ€”đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑱𐑩𐑗, 𐑕𐑧𐑟 ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛, 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Ż 𐑕𐑮 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑊𐑙𐑒𐑑. [267]

đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑑𐑻𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Ÿđ‘” đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑟𐑰𐑕𐑊𐑙𐑀𐑊 𐑐𐑼đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ 𐑔𐑟𐑔 𐑞 đ‘„đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘„ 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ. 𐑩𐑯 𐑻𐑀𐑊 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒, 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑩𐑯 1904, đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘»đ‘đ‘› 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘›đ‘źđ‘­đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Č𐑛𐑩𐑛 "𐑩 đ‘đ‘€đ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ đ‘„đ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ" 𐑝 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑹𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑞𐑹𐑑 "𐑄𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑝𐑿𐑟 𐑾 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑕𐑷𐑑 𐑊𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ". [268] đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑀𐑔𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑑đ‘Č𐑟 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑩𐑯 1911, ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙𐑟 𐑹𐑻 𐑄đ‘č 𐑐𐑻𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘; 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕 𐑑 𐑞 𐑓𐑿𐑼đ‘č 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑊𐑙 𐑞 𐑩𐑖𐑿 𐑝 ·𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑹đ‘č 𐑩𐑯 1914, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑑 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑐đ‘ș 𐑩 𐑕𐑰𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑀, ·𐑄đ‘č ·𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑹đ‘č. 𐑩𐑯 𐑞𐑩𐑕, 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑬𐑯𐑕𐑑 𐑞 𐑐𐑹𐑕𐑩𐑓𐑩𐑕𐑑 𐑀đ‘Č𐑯 𐑩𐑕𐑐𐑬𐑟𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘źđ‘šđ‘„đ‘Ÿđ‘Š ·𐑄𐑩𐑒𐑛đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑛 𐑯 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑 đ‘€đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑯 𐑐𐑟𐑎𐑒𐑀𐑱𐑄𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑟𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑕 𐑑 𐑖𐑔𐑑 𐑷𐑀 𐑐𐑹𐑕𐑩𐑓𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑕 đ‘źđ‘­đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑕𐑰𐑛 𐑞𐑧𐑄 đ‘đ‘Źđ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕. [269] đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 đ‘©đ‘›đ‘đ‘Č𐑕 𐑝 Â·đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘• ·𐑹𐑧𐑚, 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑐𐑚𐑄𐑓𐑀𐑩𐑑 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑳𐑯𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑. [270]

𐑞 ·𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑑 ·𐑹𐑫𐑄𐑩𐑯'𐑟 Â·đ‘œđ‘Č𐑛, ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑄𐑱𐑯 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑑𐑼𐑰𐑑𐑩𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 1920𐑟, 𐑩𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚𐑮𐑔 đ‘šđ‘›đ‘„đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑯 đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. ·𐑄𐑩𐑒𐑛đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑛 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑩𐑑 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛'𐑟 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑊𐑄𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑞 ·𐑚đ‘Č𐑚𐑩𐑀; [271] ·𐑣𐑚𐑟𐑩𐑀𐑛 ·𐑀𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑊 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑩𐑑𐑕 đ‘žđ‘œđ‘żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘• 𐑏𐑑𐑛𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑯 𐑀𐑚𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑩𐑯 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑻𐑯 𐑓 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€ đ‘“đ‘źđ‘°đ‘›đ‘©đ‘„đ‘Ÿ. [164] [n 29] ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑩𐑯𐑒𐑼𐑰𐑕𐑩𐑙 𐑓𐑀𐑻𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑑đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘€ đ‘„đ‘§đ‘”đ‘©đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑟 đ‘§đ‘đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑩𐑯 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑏𐑯𐑕𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕. 𐑩 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 ·𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑼𐑩𐑐đ‘č𐑑 𐑛𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 10 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1933 𐑒𐑹𐑎𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑩 𐑟𐑰𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘’đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘đ‘źđ‘±đ‘Ÿđ‘› Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ, ·𐑄𐑔𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑯𐑊 𐑯 ·𐑕𐑑𐑭𐑀𐑊𐑯:" [t] 𐑣𐑱 𐑾 𐑑𐑼đ‘Č𐑩𐑙 𐑑 𐑜𐑧𐑑 𐑕𐑳𐑄𐑔𐑊𐑙 𐑛𐑳𐑯, [𐑯] 𐑾 𐑩𐑛đ‘Ș𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑙 đ‘„đ‘§đ‘”đ‘©đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑟 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑑 𐑜𐑧𐑑 𐑕𐑳𐑄𐑔𐑊𐑙 𐑛𐑳𐑯". [272] 𐑹𐑟 𐑀𐑱𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 ·𐑹đ‘č, 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘§đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘šđ‘Ș𐑛𐑩'𐑟 ·𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑'𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑚𐑀𐑱𐑄𐑛 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑀đ‘Č𐑟' "𐑩𐑚𐑿𐑕" 𐑝 𐑞đ‘ș 1918 đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑓 𐑞 𐑼đ‘Č𐑟 𐑝 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ, 𐑯 𐑣𐑮𐑐𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑑, đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑛𐑩𐑓𐑰𐑑, 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Œ 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑊𐑕𐑒𐑱𐑐 𐑟𐑧𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑚𐑿𐑖𐑩𐑯 "𐑑 𐑊𐑯𐑥𐑶 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘łđ‘„đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑼𐑩𐑑đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑩𐑯 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› đ‘č 𐑕𐑳𐑄 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑯𐑿𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑀 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩". [273] 𐑞𐑰𐑟 𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕, 𐑩𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑑 𐑞 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 𐑓𐑊𐑀đ‘Șđ‘•đ‘©đ‘“đ‘Œ-𐑐𐑎𐑩𐑑 ·𐑑đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑕 ·𐑛𐑳𐑛𐑊, "đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑄𐑳𐑗 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑏𐑑𐑀𐑫𐑒 𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑱 𐑯 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀". [274]

"đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘”đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż", ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘đ‘»đ‘ đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 𐑞 𐑯𐑿 𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑝 𐑿𐑡𐑧𐑯𐑩𐑒𐑕, 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯𐑒𐑼𐑰𐑕𐑩𐑙 𐑔𐑰𐑄 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 1900. 𐑣𐑰 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘”đ‘œđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘źđ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘”đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘'𐑕 ·𐑣𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑚𐑫𐑒 (1903), 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑕 𐑑 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑯 Â·đ‘•đ‘”đ‘đ‘Œđ‘„đ‘šđ‘Ż, 𐑯 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘‘ 𐑞𐑧𐑄 đ‘“đ‘»đ‘žđ‘Œ đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞 1920𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑹𐑒 𐑑 Â·đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘”đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘€đ‘©. 𐑩 1946 ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘°đ‘Ż 𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘»đ‘đ‘› 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 "đ‘·đ‘€đ‘ąđ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑑 𐑀𐑫𐑒 𐑹𐑑 𐑐𐑰𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑄đ‘č 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Ș𐑀𐑩𐑥𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑾𐑑𐑩𐑕𐑑". [275] 𐑚đ‘Č 1933, 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑓𐑩𐑕 𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑟đ‘Ș𐑒𐑕, 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑞𐑹𐑑 "𐑩𐑓 𐑱𐑰 𐑛𐑩𐑟đ‘Čđ‘Œ 𐑩 𐑕𐑻𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑑đ‘Č𐑐 𐑝 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑯 đ‘’đ‘łđ‘€đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑱𐑰 𐑄𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑻𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑱𐑑 𐑞 𐑕đ‘č𐑑 𐑝 𐑐𐑰𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑣𐑔 𐑛𐑔 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑓𐑩𐑑 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 𐑩𐑑"; [276] 𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘©đ‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘˜đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑩𐑟 𐑛𐑩𐑝đ‘Č𐑛𐑩𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑯 đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑹𐑟 đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑊. [175] [n 30] 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘°đ‘Ż Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Š 𐑩𐑯 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1938, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑: "𐑞đ‘ș 𐑾 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑐𐑰𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 𐑣𐑔 𐑷𐑑 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑀𐑊𐑒𐑹𐑊𐑛𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛". [275] 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑕𐑿𐑄𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑹𐑻 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑡𐑮𐑒, 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑑𐑱𐑕𐑑. [278] đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘ąđ‘Č𐑟, ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 đ‘„đ‘šđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘°đ‘Ż 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑩𐑛, "𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑕𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑕 𐑒𐑹𐑯 𐑚𐑰 𐑒𐑀𐑭𐑕𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑄đ‘č 𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑚𐑹𐑛 đ‘œđ‘§đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ". [275] [n 31]

·𐑓𐑊𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓𐑊𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯-𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑀𐑞𐑥𐑀𐑊 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑑 𐑞 𐑓đ‘Č𐑝 𐑳𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘› 1879–1885. đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘©đ‘—đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š (1879) 𐑩𐑟 𐑩 𐑕𐑧𐑄𐑊-𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑚đ‘Čđ‘©đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘“đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑩𐑀 𐑝 𐑄𐑊𐑛-Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›, ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 "𐑮𐑯 Â·đ‘›đ‘±đ‘đ‘Šđ‘› ·𐑒đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘°đ‘€đ‘› "𐑩𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑑 ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚. [7] 𐑞 ·𐑊𐑟𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 ·𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 (1880) 𐑩𐑟 𐑩 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑰𐑒 𐑝 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑥, 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑛𐑟 𐑞 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑀𐑩𐑕, "𐑣𐑞𐑛𐑀𐑊 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘”đ‘œđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ". [7] 𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘› 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑔𐑻𐑛 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€, Â·đ‘€đ‘łđ‘ ·𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑞 ·𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑕 (1881), 𐑓𐑰𐑀𐑊𐑙 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑄𐑞𐑒𐑑 𐑩 𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑐𐑶𐑯𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘”đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘’đ‘Œ, 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑯𐑮 𐑄đ‘č 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩𐑑𐑕 đ‘đ‘źđ‘°đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘§đ‘•đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. [279] ·𐑒𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑀 ·𐑚đ‘Č𐑟𐑩𐑯'𐑟 ·𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯 (1882) 𐑩𐑟, 𐑕𐑧𐑟 ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚, 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯𐑛đ‘Č𐑑𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑐𐑱𐑑𐑕 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑓𐑫𐑀-𐑀𐑧𐑙𐑔 𐑐𐑀𐑱, Â·đ‘„đ‘•đ‘Ÿ ·𐑹đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯'𐑟 ·𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯. [7] 𐑖𐑷 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑳𐑯𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 ·𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑩 𐑄đ‘Ș𐑯𐑿𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑛𐑊𐑐𐑊𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 𐑛𐑏𐑯𐑓𐑷𐑀 𐑝 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. Â·đ‘œđ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘” Â·đ‘œđ‘źđ‘Šđ‘“đ‘Šđ‘”, 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑔𐑷𐑑, 𐑕𐑰𐑟 𐑞 𐑯đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑼𐑧𐑒đ‘č𐑛 𐑝 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, 𐑚𐑮𐑔 𐑩𐑯 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑹𐑑 𐑀𐑞𐑥 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑯𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑 đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑝 𐑞 1880𐑟. [280]

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑓𐑊𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑧𐑯𐑩 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑣𐑩𐑟 1932 đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘đ‘§đ‘€đ‘© 𐑞 Â·đ‘©đ‘›đ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑀𐑚𐑒 Â·đ‘œđ‘»đ‘€ 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑻 ·𐑕𐑻𐑗 𐑓 Â·đ‘œđ‘Ș𐑛, 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑩 𐑝𐑩𐑟𐑩𐑑 𐑑 ·𐑕𐑏𐑔 ·𐑚𐑓𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩 𐑩𐑯 1932. 𐑞 𐑩𐑐đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑄𐑩𐑕 đ‘œđ‘»đ‘€, 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑑, 𐑩𐑯𐑒𐑱𐑩𐑟𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑝, 𐑯 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘»đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑑 ·𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑄𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯đ‘ș𐑩 𐑑𐑰𐑗𐑩𐑙, 𐑕𐑧𐑑𐑕 𐑬𐑑 𐑑 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 Â·đ‘œđ‘Ș𐑛, đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑩 𐑥𐑻𐑯𐑊 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 đ‘©đ‘›đ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘’đ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, đ‘€đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑻 𐑑 𐑩 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘’đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑠𐑩𐑯. [281] 𐑞 𐑕𐑑đ‘č𐑩, đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯, 𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑕𐑳𐑄 Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘—đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑚𐑹𐑯𐑛 𐑩𐑯 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 ·𐑚đ‘č𐑛 𐑝 Â·đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. [282]

đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑛đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

Caricature of middle-aged bearded man at his ease in an armchair
"𐑞 𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑧𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑕 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓—·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑑 𐑹𐑻𐑒": 1904 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑄𐑚𐑒𐑕 Â·đ‘šđ‘œđ‘šđ‘Žđ‘„

·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑓𐑊𐑒 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Ș𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑔𐑟𐑔𐑏𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑛𐑚𐑯 H. ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕, 𐑹𐑻 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 1965 𐑯 1988. [283] 𐑖𐑷 𐑱𐑳𐑯𐑕 𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑫𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑒𐑿𐑐đ‘Č 𐑑𐑱𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩 𐑝đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘żđ‘„đ‘Ÿ; ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑, 𐑳𐑯𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛, 𐑞𐑱 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑓𐑊𐑀 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑄đ‘č. [284] 𐑖𐑷 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑩 𐑒𐑱đ‘čđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑝 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑑𐑧𐑯 𐑐𐑻 𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑝 đ‘•đ‘Œđ‘đ‘Č𐑝𐑛; 2,653 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑾 𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕'đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑓đ‘č 𐑝đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘żđ‘„đ‘Ÿ. [285] 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘œđ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Ș𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑹𐑻 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑗đ‘Č𐑀𐑛𐑣𐑫𐑛 𐑓𐑼𐑧𐑯𐑛 Â·đ‘§đ‘›đ‘ąđ‘Œđ‘› ·𐑄𐑩𐑒𐑯𐑿𐑀𐑑𐑊; 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑔𐑊𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘°đ‘œđ‘Ÿ (𐑯 đ‘šđ‘„đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ amoureuses) Â·đ‘„đ‘•đ‘Ÿ ·𐑐𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑒 ·𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑧𐑀 𐑯 ·𐑧𐑀𐑩𐑯 ·𐑑𐑧𐑟𐑊; 𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 ·𐑀đ‘č𐑛 ·𐑚𐑀𐑓𐑟𐑊𐑛 Â·đ‘›đ‘łđ‘œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘•, H. G. Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 G. K. Â·đ‘—đ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘Ż; 𐑞 𐑚đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘•đ‘Œ ·𐑥𐑰𐑯 ·𐑑𐑳𐑯𐑊; 𐑞 𐑯𐑳𐑯 ·𐑀đ‘č𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩 ·𐑄𐑩𐑒𐑀𐑭𐑒𐑀𐑩𐑯; 𐑯 𐑞 𐑾𐑑 đ‘§đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘ ·𐑕𐑊𐑛𐑯𐑊 ·𐑒đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€. [286] [n 32] 𐑩𐑯 2007 𐑩 316-𐑐𐑱𐑥 𐑝đ‘Ș𐑀𐑿𐑄 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑩𐑯𐑑đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑. [287]

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑛đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑓 1885–1897, 𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚, 𐑹𐑻 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑑𐑔 𐑝đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘żđ‘„đ‘Ÿ, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑑𐑎𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑝 1,241 đ‘đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘©đ‘Ÿ, 𐑩𐑯 1986. 𐑼𐑩𐑝𐑿𐑩𐑙 𐑞𐑧𐑄, 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑕𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Œ ·𐑓𐑟𐑧𐑛 Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑼𐑮𐑑: "𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑞 𐑐𐑼đ‘Č𐑄đ‘ș𐑩 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑 𐑓 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑟 𐑞 đ‘„đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑕𐑳𐑐𐑀𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑱𐑰 𐑷𐑀𐑟𐑧𐑛𐑊 𐑯𐑮 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 𐑯 𐑹𐑻𐑒, 𐑞 𐑛đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑾 𐑷𐑀𐑕𐑎 đ‘đ‘šđ‘€đ‘żđ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑣𐑩𐑕𐑑đ‘č𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑯 đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘•đ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Ș𐑥𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑛đ‘Ș𐑒𐑿𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑝 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘– 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑧𐑯𐑛 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑱𐑥." đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 1897, đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘–đ‘Œ 𐑝 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑀𐑧𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑑 𐑜𐑩𐑝 𐑳𐑐 𐑒𐑰𐑐𐑩𐑙 𐑩 𐑛đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘Š. [288]

đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘©đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘• 𐑯 𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑚đ‘Čđ‘©đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘“đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑔𐑟𐑔 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Ąđ‘»đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑐𐑚𐑄𐑓𐑀𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑯 𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑠𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑀đ‘Șđ‘™đ‘œđ‘Œ 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑼𐑮𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑕. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑟𐑱𐑯𐑥 𐑝 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑 𐑯 𐑩𐑯𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑩𐑛 đ‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘§đ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑝𐑧𐑡𐑩𐑑đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯, đ‘€đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ą, 𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑄𐑩 𐑯 𐑓𐑩𐑑đ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Š, [n 33] đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑷𐑀 𐑝 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑯 𐑕𐑐𐑮𐑒 đ‘’đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘•đ‘€đ‘Š. đ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘§đ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙𐑟 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞𐑰𐑟 𐑯 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑕 𐑹𐑻 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑, 𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑀𐑊 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑛𐑧𐑔, đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘œđ‘§đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑝đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘żđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 "𐑱𐑩𐑑 𐑯 đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘›đ‘©đ‘„" 𐑯 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘Ąđ‘»đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. [287]

𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑑 𐑞 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑚𐑫𐑒𐑕 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄 (·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛 𐑒𐑬𐑯𐑑𐑕 80 𐑚đ‘Č 1939) [290] ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑚đ‘Čđ‘©đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘“đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑏𐑑𐑐𐑫𐑑, 𐑩𐑐𐑞𐑑 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑛đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑕𐑀đ‘Č𐑑. 𐑣𐑰 đ‘œđ‘±đ‘ đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘đ‘żđ‘Ÿ 𐑑 đ‘Żđ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿâ€”" GBS Â·đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘“đ‘§đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ", 𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑛𐑱𐑀𐑊 ·𐑄𐑱𐑀 𐑩𐑯 1904 𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘­đ‘„đ‘đ‘©đ‘€ [291]—𐑯 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Č𐑛𐑩𐑛 đ‘•đ‘’đ‘§đ‘—đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑹𐑫𐑛-𐑚𐑰 𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ đ‘Łđ‘”đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑟𐑊𐑥𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷 𐑯 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑. [292] 𐑩𐑯 1939 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑛𐑟𐑔 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞𐑰𐑟 đ‘„đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘œđ‘Šđ‘đ‘Ÿ ·𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 ·𐑩𐑹𐑱, 𐑩 𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑊 𐑱𐑩𐑗, 𐑩 đ‘˜đ‘œ 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑛𐑧𐑔, 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑩𐑝đ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑯 𐑟𐑰𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑕𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑰𐑯 ·𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 Â·đ‘•đ‘’đ‘§đ‘—đ‘©đ‘Ÿ (𐑞đ‘ș 𐑹𐑻 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘°đ‘Ż). 𐑣𐑰 𐑄𐑱𐑛 𐑩𐑑 đ‘’đ‘€đ‘œ 𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘łđ‘šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑕𐑀𐑊𐑄 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑯𐑮 𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕 𐑩 𐑓𐑫𐑀 𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Š. [293]

𐑚𐑊𐑀𐑰𐑓𐑕 𐑯 đ‘©đ‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘˜đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘» 𐑯 𐑩 Â·đ‘đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘Ż; 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑩 đ‘šđ‘«đ‘Œđ‘ đ‘ąđ‘­ 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘šđ‘«đ‘Œđ‘ đ‘ąđ‘­ 𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑊𐑙 𐑓 ·𐑣𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑯 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩; 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑛đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑩𐑟 đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑐𐑼𐑹𐑙𐑒𐑕 𐑾 𐑐𐑻𐑐𐑩𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀; 𐑣𐑰 𐑕𐑩𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑕 đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 𐑩𐑟 𐑑𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č đ‘“đ‘šđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„.

â€”Â·đ‘€đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘› ·𐑓đ‘Čđ‘Żđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘œ, 𐑞 Â·đ‘•đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘ (2006) [294]

·𐑔𐑟𐑔𐑏𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑚𐑊𐑀𐑰𐑓𐑕, đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Š. 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑊 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑞𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑐𐑼đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘’đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żâ€”đ‘ž ·𐑕𐑐𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑖 𐑕𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Œ-𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑕𐑄𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘•đ‘šđ‘€đ‘đ‘©đ‘›đ‘č 𐑛𐑰 Â·đ‘„đ‘­đ‘›đ‘žđ‘Šđ‘­đ‘œđ‘© 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑟 "𐑩 𐑐𐑎𐑀 𐑝 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑕𐑧𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑐𐑰𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑝 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑝 𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑊". [295] 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑳𐑯 đ‘șđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑑 𐑀𐑰𐑕𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑: 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘“đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑑 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎 𐑯đ‘č𐑄𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘– 𐑓đ‘čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑙 𐑯 𐑐𐑳𐑙𐑒𐑗𐑔𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯. 𐑣𐑰 đ‘“đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑞𐑒𐑱𐑊𐑒 đ‘•đ‘đ‘§đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑹𐑟 "𐑖𐑮" 𐑓 "𐑖𐑮"; 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑼đ‘Ș𐑐𐑑 𐑞 "u" 𐑩𐑯 đ‘ąđ‘»đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑀đ‘Č𐑒 "đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘Œ" 𐑯 "đ‘“đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œ"; 𐑯 𐑱đ‘șđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑣𐑰 𐑟𐑊𐑥𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑩𐑐đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑊 𐑩𐑯 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘šđ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑹𐑟 "𐑱𐑮𐑯'𐑑" đ‘č "𐑞𐑹𐑑'𐑕". [296] 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑊𐑀, ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘čđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑞𐑹𐑑, đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑕𐑳𐑄 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑕𐑩𐑓đ‘Č𐑛 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ, 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑹𐑕𐑧𐑑𐑕 𐑹𐑻 𐑑 𐑓đ‘č𐑄 𐑩 𐑑𐑼𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑑 𐑐𐑱 𐑓 𐑓𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑼𐑩𐑓đ‘č𐑄 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘– 𐑚𐑀𐑓𐑩𐑚𐑧𐑑 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 𐑩 𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑧𐑑𐑊𐑒 đ‘đ‘»đ‘ đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑝 𐑓đ‘č𐑑𐑩 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. [7] 𐑞𐑮 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 đ‘’đ‘€đ‘œ, 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑛𐑼𐑭𐑓𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓𐑀𐑷𐑛, 𐑯 𐑞 𐑒đ‘č𐑑𐑕 𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑟𐑔𐑀𐑛 𐑞 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑑𐑼𐑳𐑕𐑑 đ‘đ‘¶đ‘›. 𐑩 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑬𐑑-𐑝-𐑒đ‘č𐑑 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘źđ‘°đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘Č𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩 𐑕𐑳𐑄 𐑝£8,300 𐑓 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑙 𐑼𐑩𐑓đ‘č𐑄; 𐑞 𐑚𐑳𐑀𐑒 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓đ‘č𐑗𐑔𐑯 𐑱𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑑 𐑞 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘ș𐑩 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘°đ‘Ÿâ€”đ‘ž ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿđ‘„, 𐑞 ·𐑟𐑶𐑩𐑀 ·𐑩𐑒𐑚𐑛𐑩𐑄𐑊 𐑝 ·𐑛𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑚𐑑𐑊𐑒 ·𐑞𐑑 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘œđ‘šđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑝 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›. [297] [n 34] 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑞£8,300 𐑱𐑧𐑯𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑩 𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑧𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑊𐑛𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 Â·đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘€đ‘°đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑚𐑀𐑓𐑩𐑚𐑧𐑑, 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯 1962 𐑑 𐑩 𐑀𐑞𐑥𐑀𐑊 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯. [300]

Middle-aged man with bushy beard
𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑯 1905

·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑝𐑿𐑟 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑹𐑻 𐑀𐑧𐑕 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑. 𐑣𐑹𐑝𐑩𐑙 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑿𐑔 𐑐𐑟𐑎𐑒𐑀𐑱𐑄𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑔𐑰𐑊𐑕𐑑, 𐑩𐑯 𐑄𐑊𐑛𐑩𐑀 𐑱𐑥 𐑣𐑰 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑯𐑛 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑟𐑊𐑚𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑞 ·𐑎𐑀𐑛 ·𐑑𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑥 𐑝 𐑩 đ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Ąđ‘“đ‘©đ‘€ Â·đ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘Łđ‘Žđ‘đ‘©. 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑻𐑀𐑊 đ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Ÿđ‘” đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š, 𐑣𐑰 𐑑𐑻𐑄𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 𐑩 "𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑒", 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 Â·đ‘œđ‘šđ‘źđ‘Š ·𐑕𐑀𐑎𐑯, 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑧𐑕𐑱 đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑚𐑊𐑀𐑰𐑓𐑕, 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐𐑿𐑑𐑕 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘›đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟 𐑕𐑳𐑗. [301] 𐑩𐑯 1913 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑀đ‘ș𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑕 "𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑑đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕", 𐑩𐑀đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑙 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 𐑱𐑩𐑞 Â·đ‘Ąđ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘• 𐑹𐑟 "𐑩 𐑐𐑻𐑕𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑯𐑮 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯". [302] 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑓𐑩𐑕 (1915) 𐑑 Â·đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘€đ‘°đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑩𐑯, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑭𐑕𐑒𐑕 "𐑱đ‘Č 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑜𐑩𐑝 ·𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑩 𐑗𐑭𐑯𐑕?" 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑙 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯'𐑟 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 đ‘čđ‘›đ‘Œ đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘łđ‘€đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑊𐑙 𐑗𐑶𐑕 𐑝 Â·đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘šđ‘šđ‘©đ‘• đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œ ·𐑒𐑟đ‘Č𐑕𐑑. [302] 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑚𐑟𐑷𐑛𐑒𐑭𐑕𐑑 𐑡𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 ·𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 ·𐑹đ‘č, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑯𐑝𐑮𐑒𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑻𐑄𐑩𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑏𐑯𐑑, "𐑩 𐑝𐑧𐑼𐑩 đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑧𐑜𐑟đ‘č𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯, 𐑯 𐑩𐑑 𐑜𐑩𐑝𐑟 𐑿 𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑-𐑟𐑱𐑑 𐑑𐑩𐑐, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑩𐑟 𐑑 𐑛𐑔 đ‘œđ‘«đ‘› 𐑑 𐑞𐑮𐑟 𐑣𐑔 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑑𐑓𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑿𐑟 𐑿 𐑯 𐑐𐑻𐑕𐑊𐑒𐑿𐑑 𐑿". [301] 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑊𐑀, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 "𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑕 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑓𐑊𐑒 𐑝𐑿𐑟 𐑒𐑹𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑹𐑑 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑚𐑰 𐑄đ‘č 𐑕𐑐𐑩𐑕𐑊𐑓𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑛𐑩𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑹𐑟 𐑞𐑮𐑟 𐑝 𐑩 đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘°đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ đ‘źđ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘”đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż". [303] 𐑣𐑰 𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑹𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑯𐑮 𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑖𐑫𐑛 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑀đ‘Č 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑚𐑊𐑀𐑰𐑓𐑕 𐑝 𐑧𐑯𐑩 𐑕𐑐𐑩𐑕𐑊𐑓𐑊𐑒 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑕 đ‘čđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑯 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑯𐑮 𐑄𐑩𐑄đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘€ 𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑖𐑫𐑛 "𐑑𐑱𐑒 𐑞 𐑓đ‘č𐑄 𐑝 𐑩 𐑒𐑼đ‘Ș𐑕 đ‘č 𐑧𐑯𐑩 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑑đ‘čđ‘—đ‘Œ đ‘č 𐑕𐑊𐑄𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑝 𐑚𐑀𐑳𐑛 𐑕𐑹𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑓đ‘Č𐑕". [303]

𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑕𐑐𐑬𐑟𐑛 𐑟𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊, 𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œ-𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑥 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 𐑐𐑰𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑝 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ đ‘źđ‘±đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ. [304] 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑖 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑓đ‘ș 𐑑 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ, [177] 𐑣𐑰 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 𐑹𐑯𐑑𐑩-Â·đ‘•đ‘§đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ "𐑞 𐑣𐑱𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑛 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿđ‘Š, đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑓𐑹𐑑-𐑣𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑛 ·𐑥𐑧𐑯𐑑đ‘Č𐑀 𐑓 𐑞 𐑐𐑻𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑕 ·𐑥𐑔 𐑣𐑔, 𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č đ‘šđ‘›đ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š 𐑑 𐑿𐑟 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘šđ‘źđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑞 𐑳𐑑𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑, 𐑬𐑑𐑛𐑳𐑟 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑩𐑯 đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘•". [305] 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑥𐑔𐑊𐑖 ·𐑒𐑟đ‘Ș𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑩𐑯 1932, "𐑩𐑯 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩 𐑿 𐑒𐑹𐑯 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑼𐑹𐑚𐑩𐑛 𐑐𐑰𐑐𐑩𐑀 𐑣𐑔 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑩 đ‘“đ‘Žđ‘šđ‘Ÿ đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ Â·đ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘Ÿ, Â·đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘żđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘•, Â·đ‘žđ‘„đ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, Â·đ‘Żđ‘°đ‘œđ‘źđ‘Žđ‘Ÿ, Â·đ‘“đ‘źđ‘°đ‘„đ‘±đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, ·đ‘Č𐑟𐑊𐑖𐑄𐑧𐑯, đ‘č 𐑕𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑊 𐑓đ‘Șđ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑟 𐑕𐑳𐑗. 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑐𐑾𐑑𐑩𐑟 𐑾 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 đ‘©đ‘šđ‘łđ‘ 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑀𐑶𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑞𐑰𐑟 đ‘“đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ." [306]

𐑩𐑯 1903 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Š 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 đ‘đ‘šđ‘’đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑕𐑄𐑷𐑀𐑐đ‘Ș𐑒𐑕. 𐑣𐑰 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 đ‘đ‘šđ‘’đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż "𐑩 đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘żđ‘€đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑔𐑊 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑝 𐑱𐑩𐑗𐑒𐑼𐑭𐑓𐑑"; [307] 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑝𐑿 𐑊𐑄𐑿𐑯đ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż đ‘’đ‘šđ‘„đ‘đ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑩 𐑗𐑰𐑐 𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑚𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑹𐑩𐑑 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑑𐑿𐑑 𐑓 𐑩 𐑛𐑰𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Žđ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘„ 𐑝 𐑣𐑬𐑟𐑩𐑙 𐑓 𐑞 đ‘đ‘«đ‘Œ, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑹𐑫𐑛, 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑀đ‘ș𐑛, 𐑚𐑰 𐑞 đ‘„đ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑊𐑟𐑚𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑕𐑄𐑷𐑀𐑐đ‘Ș𐑒𐑕 𐑯 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑕 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ÿ. [30] 𐑀𐑧𐑕 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑕𐑀𐑊, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑒𐑰𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑑𐑼𐑹𐑯𐑕𐑐đ‘č𐑑; ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘»đ‘đ‘› 𐑩𐑯 1992 𐑩 𐑯𐑰𐑛 𐑓 𐑩 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑯 "𐑚đ‘Č𐑕𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑙, đ‘„đ‘Žđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘šđ‘Č𐑒𐑕, đ‘·đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘„đ‘©đ‘šđ‘°đ‘€đ‘Ÿ, 𐑯 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, 𐑒𐑀đ‘Č𐑄𐑚𐑒𐑕𐑊𐑙 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑥𐑶𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑞 Â·đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘đ‘€đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘ș𐑩 ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑯đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑟". [308] 𐑖𐑷 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 đ‘žđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘šđ‘đ‘©đ‘€, 𐑑𐑫𐑒 đ‘“đ‘Žđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘œđ‘źđ‘šđ‘“đ‘• 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Ąđ‘»đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ, 𐑯 𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑯𐑮𐑑𐑕 𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑟𐑶𐑩𐑀 ·𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑄𐑩𐑚𐑰𐑀 ·𐑒𐑀𐑳𐑚. [308]

𐑖𐑷 𐑕𐑑𐑼𐑮𐑝 𐑔𐑟𐑔𐑏𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑀𐑑 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑟𐑊𐑓𐑻𐑛 𐑑 𐑹𐑟 "·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷" đ‘źđ‘­đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑞𐑹𐑯 "·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷", 𐑚𐑳𐑑 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘“đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘› đ‘„đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑊𐑙 𐑑 𐑿𐑟 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑫𐑀 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿâ€”G.B.S.—𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑚đ‘Č-𐑀đ‘Č𐑯, 𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑕đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 "g. ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷". [309] 𐑣𐑰 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘łđ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑊𐑀 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘’đ‘żđ‘‘đ‘Œ (𐑞 ·𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒 ·𐑑𐑟𐑳𐑕𐑑𐑰) 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑑 𐑀đ‘Č𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑯𐑱𐑄 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷. [7] 𐑖𐑷 𐑕𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 Â·đ‘»đ‘đ‘Č𐑯, ·𐑥𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑔 Â·đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛, ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑯 ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚, 𐑯 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 đ‘đ‘łđ‘šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•, 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑱𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑥 Â·đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š ·𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑞 đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩𐑑𐑕 1988 ·𐑒𐑱𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑥 Â·đ‘’đ‘©đ‘„đ‘đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑑 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷. [258]

đ‘€đ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Š 𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑔𐑊𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑖𐑷, đ‘žđ‘œđ‘żđ‘©đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑞 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑊𐑄𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘–-đ‘€đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ą 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ, 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑕 đ‘»đ‘, 𐑝 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑹𐑑 𐑀𐑰𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑭𐑓 𐑩 đ‘›đ‘łđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ż đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑱𐑯 𐑐𐑾𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘ž.... 𐑚𐑒𐑩𐑛𐑧𐑄𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑳𐑯𐑓𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀, 𐑝 𐑀𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕 đ‘°đ‘đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑩𐑯 đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑹𐑟 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩 𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑱đ‘ș 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑄đ‘Č𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛, ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑿𐑯𐑰𐑒 𐑯 𐑳𐑯𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑒𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑒𐑰𐑐 𐑊𐑕𐑒𐑱𐑐𐑊𐑙 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 𐑕𐑱𐑓𐑀𐑊 𐑛𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘œđ‘č𐑩 𐑝 đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘› 𐑐𐑰𐑕 𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑞𐑱 𐑣𐑹𐑝 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑕đ‘Č𐑯𐑛.

đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘•đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› ·𐑊𐑯𐑕đ‘Čđ‘’đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ (2003) [241]

·𐑖𐑷 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑓𐑬𐑯𐑛 𐑩 𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀 𐑝 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑹𐑟 𐑕𐑳𐑗, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑩𐑕𐑻𐑑𐑕 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑑𐑩𐑛𐑱 "𐑱𐑰 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘’đ‘©đ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Č𐑟 [𐑣𐑊𐑄] 𐑹𐑟 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 𐑑 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑔𐑊𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯... 𐑞 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑐𐑎𐑯𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ" 𐑣𐑔 𐑕𐑑𐑼𐑳𐑒 𐑩 𐑛𐑧𐑔-𐑚𐑀𐑎 𐑑 19𐑔-đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑄𐑧𐑀𐑩𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩. [310] 𐑩𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑑 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑐đ‘Čđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘œđ‘› "𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑑" đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑞 đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘• 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘› 𐑑 𐑔𐑩𐑙𐑒, 𐑞đ‘ș𐑚đ‘Č đ‘đ‘±đ‘đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞 𐑹𐑱 𐑓 𐑞 𐑯𐑿 𐑚𐑼𐑰𐑛𐑟 𐑝 đ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Ÿđ‘”-đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑𐑕 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 Â·đ‘œđ‘šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘ąđ‘»đ‘žđ‘Š 𐑑 ·𐑐đ‘Čđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œ. [311]

đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑕 đ‘Żđ‘żđ‘„đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘• 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑𐑕 đ‘Łđ‘”đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑮𐑟 𐑕𐑳𐑄𐑔𐑊𐑙 𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷. 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑞𐑮𐑟 𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑝 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑣𐑰 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘’đ‘€đ‘”đ‘›đ‘Ÿ ·𐑯𐑎𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘’đ‘Źđ‘Œđ‘›, 𐑣𐑔 𐑚𐑱𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑻𐑀𐑊 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑛𐑊 𐑞 Â·đ‘˜đ‘łđ‘™ ·đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑿 Â·đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑹𐑯 ·𐑑𐑧𐑀 𐑯 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑛 𐑑 𐑛𐑟𐑷 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 đ‘Žđ‘€đ‘›đ‘Œ 𐑄𐑚𐑯'𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 𐑩𐑯 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ. [312] [313] t. Â·đ‘Ÿ. Â·đ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘‘, 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑯𐑮 đ‘„đ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑛𐑄đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘Œ 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑩𐑛𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑧𐑐𐑊𐑀đ‘Ș𐑜 𐑝 Â·đ‘„đ‘»đ‘›đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑩𐑔𐑰𐑛𐑟𐑩𐑀, 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 ·𐑚𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑑'𐑟 đ‘•đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑯 𐑞đ‘ș đ‘šđ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑞 đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘•, 𐑄đ‘Č𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑕𐑱𐑯𐑑 ·𐑥𐑎𐑯. [314] 𐑞 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 ·𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒 ·𐑚𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑀𐑊 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑞𐑹𐑑 Â·đ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘‘'𐑕 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑞 ·𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑓𐑊𐑛𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒𐑀𐑻𐑒 "𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑷𐑀 𐑞 đ‘œđ‘„đ‘žđ‘’đ‘• 𐑝 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„... 𐑱𐑩𐑞𐑬𐑑 𐑞 𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘€ ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷". [315] 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑄đ‘č 𐑟𐑰𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑕, Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑄𐑞𐑒𐑕 ·𐑑đ‘Ș𐑄 ·𐑕𐑑đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑹𐑟 "𐑞 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑝 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑𐑕"; [316] 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 "đ‘•đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘• 𐑓𐑾𐑕" 𐑩𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑕𐑑đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘›'𐑟 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩𐑟 ·𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑯 ·𐑱𐑒𐑚đ‘č𐑯, ·𐑣𐑧𐑯𐑟𐑊 Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 Â·đ‘đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Œ Â·đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ. [317]

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑰𐑑 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ

·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑒𐑼đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑩𐑑𐑀𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑻𐑀𐑊 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥. ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑛𐑔𐑒đ‘č 𐑯𐑮𐑑𐑕 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩 𐑑𐑧𐑯 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č đ‘©đ‘—đ‘°đ‘đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯. [318] 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑕𐑊𐑙 𐑩 𐑛𐑩𐑼𐑧𐑒𐑑 𐑛𐑧𐑑 𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷, ·𐑿𐑥𐑰𐑯 ·𐑎'𐑯𐑰𐑀 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑛𐑄đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘Œ 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑱𐑥 𐑝 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘°đ‘Ż, đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑼𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑹𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑝 Â·đ‘Šđ‘šđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. [319] đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ ·𐑖𐑷-𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑑 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑𐑕 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑛𐑔𐑒đ‘č 𐑾 Â·đ‘§đ‘€đ‘„đ‘Œ ·𐑟đ‘Č𐑕, 𐑓 𐑣𐑔𐑄 ·𐑖𐑷 "𐑎𐑐𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑛đ‘č𐑟, 𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑛 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑀đ‘Č𐑑𐑕, 𐑯 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 đ‘Łđ‘Œđ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ"; [320] Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ Â·đ‘•đ‘Œđ‘¶đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑣𐑔 𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑔đ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑟 "𐑞 𐑊𐑄𐑚𐑚𐑑𐑩𐑀𐑛 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘ đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ"; [321] 𐑯 Â·đ‘Ÿ. N. ·𐑚đ‘ș𐑄𐑩𐑯, 𐑣𐑔 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑐đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘› 𐑑 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 𐑓 𐑞 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑙 𐑩 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘č𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑝 Â·đ‘•đ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘Œ 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑎𐑐𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑩: "đ‘Č 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑚𐑰 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘źđ‘°đ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑑 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑀đ‘Č𐑒 𐑞𐑹𐑑". [322]

𐑩𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑊𐑙 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑟𐑧𐑐𐑿𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 1976 𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩, T. F. Â·đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑟 𐑳𐑯𐑗𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑥𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑯 𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑹𐑟 𐑞 𐑀𐑰𐑛𐑊𐑙 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘–-đ‘€đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ą 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 (đ‘‘đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Ÿđ‘”) đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š, 𐑯 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘­đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑐𐑼𐑮𐑟 𐑕𐑑đ‘Č𐑀. [323] 𐑞 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑀𐑎𐑊𐑙 đ‘˜đ‘œ, 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑑𐑼đ‘ș𐑩 𐑩𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑, 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑 ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 ·đ‘Ș𐑟𐑚đ‘č𐑯 đ‘’đ‘šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑞 Â·đ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż' 𐑟 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 ·𐑄đ‘Č𐑒𐑩𐑀 ·𐑚𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑙𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑓 𐑟𐑊𐑓𐑻𐑊𐑙 𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑟 "𐑞 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑛𐑟𐑚𐑄𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑 𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ". ·đ‘Ș𐑟𐑚đ‘č𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Ș𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 "𐑩𐑟 𐑞 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑓𐑟𐑷𐑥𐑩𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑑, 𐑩𐑯𐑧𐑐𐑑 𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘„đ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘›đ‘źđ‘­đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑑 đ‘œđ‘łđ‘€ 𐑩 𐑑𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑛 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒 đ‘č 𐑓𐑔𐑀 𐑩 𐑛𐑳𐑀 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒". [324] 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑑 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑣đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊, Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑕𐑰𐑟 𐑞 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑯 𐑕𐑳𐑄 𐑝 ·đ‘Ș𐑟𐑚đ‘č𐑯'𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ, 𐑯 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘’đ‘€đ‘”đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞𐑮 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œ'𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑩𐑟 𐑯đ‘Čđ‘žđ‘Œ đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑯đ‘č đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘, 𐑞𐑰𐑟 đ‘©đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑾 𐑕𐑩𐑓𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑑 𐑒𐑀𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑓đ‘Č ·đ‘Ș𐑟𐑚đ‘č𐑯 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Łđ‘§đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷. [316]

𐑩𐑯 𐑩 1983 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩, R. J. ·𐑒𐑷𐑓𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑯 𐑕𐑩𐑥𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 𐑒𐑰 𐑓đ‘čđ‘źđ‘łđ‘Żđ‘Œâ€”" 𐑜đ‘Șđ‘›đ‘“đ‘­đ‘žđ‘Œ, 𐑩𐑓 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑚𐑒𐑗𐑔𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑒𐑩 đ‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘©đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘šđ‘•"—𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑻𐑛. [325] 𐑑𐑔 đ‘“đ‘»đ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑹𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑔𐑊𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Š 𐑾 𐑯𐑎𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘›: 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Șđ‘đ‘©đ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑑 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Œđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘, 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓đ‘Č𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 1968, 𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘§đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘• 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œ 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖 𐑩 ·𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ. [317] 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑖đ‘č𐑑 1910 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑞 ·𐑛𐑞𐑒 ·𐑀𐑱𐑛𐑊 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑕đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑑𐑕, 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ đ‘đ‘€đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑒𐑹𐑰𐑯 Â·đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘” đ‘Č 𐑓 𐑞 𐑊𐑯𐑛𐑏𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑩 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑾𐑑 𐑝 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑐𐑱𐑯. [326]

𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑿 ·𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑𐑕𐑄𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 2012 Â·đ‘›đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘€ Â·đ‘Ąđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑟𐑧𐑐𐑿𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑀đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 150𐑔 đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑩𐑯 2006 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘łđ‘đ‘Œđ‘› đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Š. 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘Ąđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ'đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑝𐑿, 𐑞 𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑊 𐑒𐑳𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑼𐑩𐑝đ‘Čđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 𐑖𐑮𐑛 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑'𐑕 "𐑷𐑀𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑳𐑯𐑀𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘• 𐑑 đ‘Źđ‘Œ 𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ". [327] 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑱𐑄 đ‘˜đ‘œ, ·𐑄𐑞𐑒 ·𐑀𐑷𐑕𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑮𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘œđ‘žđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑄đ‘č𐑩𐑀 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘»đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘œđ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘› đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘-𐑛𐑱 đ‘·đ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ, 𐑯 𐑄𐑱𐑛 𐑣𐑊𐑄—𐑀đ‘Č𐑒 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑄đ‘Ș𐑛𐑩𐑀, ·𐑊𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑯—𐑹𐑳𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑𐑕 𐑩𐑯 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ. [328]

𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘“đ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑯đ‘Čđ‘šđ‘œđ‘Œđ‘©-đ‘Ș𐑯-𐑞-·𐑀𐑱𐑒, ·đ‘Ș𐑯𐑑đ‘ș𐑩𐑮, ·𐑒𐑚𐑯𐑩𐑛𐑩 𐑩𐑟 𐑞 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑀𐑞𐑥𐑩𐑕𐑑 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘č𐑩 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑳𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑯𐑊 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑯đ‘č𐑔 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩. 𐑩𐑑 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘›đ‘żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑚đ‘Č đ‘č 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑯 đ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑟 𐑹𐑧𐑀 𐑹𐑟 𐑕𐑳𐑄 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕. [329] 𐑞 Â·đ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘Žđ‘€đ‘› ·𐑔𐑊𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘œđ‘źđ‘”đ‘, 𐑓𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 2006, đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘• 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷 𐑯 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 ·𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘“đ‘°đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑣𐑿𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑑đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑎𐑑𐑩𐑛. [330] 𐑩𐑑 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘œđ‘źđ‘”đ‘ 𐑑 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑟𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑷𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑥 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑔𐑟𐑔 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑄𐑳𐑯𐑔𐑀𐑊 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Œđ‘‘ đ‘•đ‘œđ‘°đ‘Ÿ ·𐑐𐑟đ‘Ș𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷. [331]

đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

𐑩𐑯 𐑞 1940𐑟 𐑞 đ‘·đ‘”đ‘Œ ·𐑣𐑚𐑟𐑩𐑀𐑛 ·𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑕𐑩𐑯 đ‘©đ‘›đ‘đ‘Č𐑟𐑛 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 ·𐑑𐑟𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑑 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑 𐑞 𐑚𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 ·𐑒đ‘čđ‘Żđ‘Œ, 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑛𐑩𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑙 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑚𐑰 𐑑𐑎𐑑𐑩𐑀𐑊 đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘œđ‘Ș𐑑𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞𐑩𐑯 𐑓𐑩𐑓𐑑𐑩 đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ. [332] 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑩𐑝𐑧𐑯𐑑, ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑚𐑟𐑷𐑛 đ‘’đ‘łđ‘€đ‘—đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘€đ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Š, 𐑊𐑄𐑚đ‘Ș𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑱đ‘Č𐑛𐑀𐑊 𐑿𐑟𐑛 𐑑𐑻𐑄 "đ‘–đ‘±đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż", 𐑣𐑹𐑟 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑯 𐑩𐑟 đ‘Żđ‘»đ‘—đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷 ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Čđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 𐑝đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘• 𐑐𐑾𐑑𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑀𐑛. 𐑞 đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯 1941 𐑯 đ‘•đ‘Œđ‘đ‘Č𐑝𐑟; 𐑩𐑑 đ‘čđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ÿ đ‘„đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑩𐑝𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕, 𐑯 đ‘đ‘łđ‘šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑩 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘œđ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑚𐑫𐑀𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż. 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑝 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑥𐑔𐑯 1950; 𐑩𐑑 đ‘“đ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 1970𐑟 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑥𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑀, 𐑩𐑛đ‘Ș𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑐𐑧𐑯 ·𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑 Â·đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š ·𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑕, 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑛 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 2004. 𐑩 𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑛 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 đ‘čđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż, 𐑓𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 1951 𐑹𐑟 "𐑞 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊", đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘„đ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑝 𐑹𐑟 𐑝 2016. 𐑄đ‘č 𐑟𐑰𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Čđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑥𐑩𐑐𐑚𐑯 𐑯 Â·đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Ÿ. [333]

𐑚𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑛𐑟 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑟 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑 𐑩 𐑝đ‘ș𐑩𐑛 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ đ‘€đ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Š, 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑷𐑀 𐑝 𐑩𐑑 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘—đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘™. 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Č𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑀đ‘Č𐑒 𐑝 𐑣𐑹𐑝𐑩𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑒 𐑩𐑛𐑚𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑓 𐑞 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ ("𐑄đ‘Č đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑕𐑧𐑑 đ‘žđ‘§đ‘„đ‘•đ‘§đ‘€đ‘đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 𐑩 đ‘đ‘»đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑝 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑮𐑯") [334] 𐑑𐑔 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑒đ‘Șđ‘„đ‘©đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ: đ‘žđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑞 𐑚𐑱𐑕𐑊𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑗đ‘Ș𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑩𐑑 Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘€đ‘Ąđ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 1908, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑚đ‘Č ·đ‘Șđ‘•đ‘’đ‘Œ ·𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑏𐑕, 𐑯 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘„đ‘±đ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑛𐑚𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 1956 𐑹𐑟 𐑄đ‘Č ·𐑓đ‘ș ·𐑀𐑱𐑛𐑊 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑯 𐑀𐑊𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑕 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑯 ·𐑥𐑱 Â·đ‘€đ‘»đ‘Żđ‘Œ 𐑯 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘“đ‘źđ‘§đ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘’ ·𐑀𐑎. [67] 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑩 𐑣đ‘Č 𐑼𐑩𐑜𐑾𐑛 𐑓 Â·đ‘§đ‘€đ‘œđ‘ž, ·𐑖𐑷 𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑛𐑬𐑯 𐑞 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘„đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘Œ'𐑟 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑓 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘© 𐑀𐑊𐑚𐑟𐑧𐑑𐑎, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑛 𐑩 đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ 𐑐𐑾𐑑 𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘ąđ‘±đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑞 BBC 𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘§đ‘€đ‘œđ‘ž'𐑟 ·𐑔𐑻𐑛 ·𐑕𐑊𐑄𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑊, 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑑𐑰 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑹𐑰𐑑 (1930). [67] [335]

𐑞 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘Š 𐑩𐑟 𐑳𐑯𐑕𐑻𐑑𐑩𐑯. 𐑩𐑯 1921 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑻𐑕𐑑𐑹đ‘Č𐑀 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘šđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ Â·đ‘žđ‘—đ‘Œ, 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑, 𐑼𐑮𐑑: "đ‘Č 𐑛𐑬𐑑 𐑩𐑓 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑩𐑟 𐑧𐑯𐑩 𐑒𐑱𐑕 𐑝 𐑩 𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑕𐑮 𐑱đ‘Č𐑛𐑀𐑊 𐑼𐑰𐑛, 𐑣𐑻𐑛, 𐑕𐑰𐑯, 𐑯 𐑯𐑮𐑯 𐑹𐑟 𐑘đ‘č𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓, 𐑣𐑔 𐑣𐑹𐑟 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑕𐑮 𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑒𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż." [336] Â·đ‘„đ‘žđ‘œđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘‘ ·𐑒𐑎𐑀, 𐑣𐑔 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› ·𐑖𐑷 𐑞 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑱𐑥, 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑕𐑑 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑝 đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘«đ‘› 𐑣𐑊𐑄. 𐑖𐑰 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑑 "𐑊𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑕𐑀𐑊 𐑣𐑾𐑛" 𐑹𐑑 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑊𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊, 𐑖𐑰 đ‘•đ‘Œđ‘„đ‘Čđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ÿ, 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓 𐑓𐑳𐑯—" 𐑞 𐑓𐑳𐑯 𐑝 𐑩 đ‘šđ‘źđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑾𐑑𐑩𐑕𐑑". [337] đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑛𐑧𐑔, Â·đ‘đ‘œđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑼𐑮𐑑: "𐑯𐑮 𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑞 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑝 ·𐑑đ‘Ș𐑄 ·𐑐𐑱𐑯 𐑣𐑹𐑟 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑕𐑮 𐑛𐑧𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑓𐑀𐑔𐑩𐑯𐑕 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑯 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑯 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑼𐑩 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷." [336]

𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑑𐑕 𐑎𐑚𐑊𐑗𐑫đ‘ș𐑩 𐑑𐑼𐑩𐑚𐑿𐑑 𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑞 ·𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 ·𐑕𐑳𐑐𐑀𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑩𐑛:

𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯𐑮 đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 đ‘Čđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿ. 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑩𐑛đ‘Șđ‘đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑯 đ‘©đ‘›đ‘šđ‘đ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯𐑒đ‘Șđ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑔𐑷𐑑𐑕 𐑝 𐑞 𐑓đ‘čđ‘źđ‘łđ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. ·𐑯𐑰𐑗𐑩, ·𐑕𐑚𐑄𐑿𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘šđ‘łđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ( ·𐑧𐑟𐑩𐑹đ‘Ș𐑯), ·𐑄𐑞𐑒𐑕, ·𐑖𐑧𐑀𐑊, ·𐑚𐑀𐑱𐑒, Â·đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ ·𐑄đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑕, ·𐑟𐑳𐑕𐑒𐑊𐑯, Â·đ‘šđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Žđ‘đ‘§đ‘Ż 𐑯 Â·đ‘đ‘­đ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Œ 𐑷𐑀 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑞đ‘ș đ‘šđ‘đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘šđ‘đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ. 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑚𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑙 𐑑 𐑞đ‘ș đ‘•đ‘»đ‘đ‘Šđ‘• 𐑷𐑀 𐑞 đ‘“đ‘šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑩 đ‘đ‘Źđ‘Œđ‘“đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑄đ‘Č𐑯𐑛, 𐑚đ‘Č đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑱𐑩𐑑, 𐑯 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩 𐑾𐑑𐑩𐑓𐑩𐑕 𐑝 đ‘žđ‘œđ‘żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘, 𐑣𐑰 𐑒𐑹𐑼𐑩𐑛 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑔𐑷𐑑𐑕 𐑹𐑟 𐑓𐑾 𐑹𐑟 𐑞𐑱 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑼𐑰𐑗—𐑕𐑮 𐑓𐑾 𐑚𐑩𐑘đ‘Ș𐑯𐑛 𐑞đ‘ș 𐑕đ‘čđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑞𐑱 𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑑 𐑳𐑕 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑝đ‘Č𐑑𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑝 𐑞 𐑯𐑿𐑀𐑊 𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛. [338]

𐑯𐑮𐑑𐑕[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

  1. ^ 𐑯𐑬 (2016) 𐑯𐑮𐑯 𐑹𐑟 33 ·𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑥𐑊 ·𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑑. [2]
  2. ^ 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Œ ·𐑄đ‘Č𐑒𐑩𐑀 ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛 𐑼𐑧𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑟 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑯 1689 ·𐑒𐑚𐑐𐑑𐑊𐑯 Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ ·𐑖𐑷 𐑓𐑷𐑑 𐑓 Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ III 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑚𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑶𐑯, 𐑓 𐑱𐑩𐑗 đ‘•đ‘»đ‘đ‘Šđ‘• 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘­đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑩 𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑯𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑒𐑊𐑀𐑒𐑧𐑯𐑊. [4]
  3. ^ 𐑞 𐑓đ‘č đ‘•đ‘’đ‘”đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑞 Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 ·𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀, 𐑼𐑳𐑯 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑧𐑔𐑩𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑑 ·𐑗𐑻𐑗 𐑩𐑯 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›; 𐑩 𐑐𐑼đ‘Čđ‘đ‘©đ‘‘ 𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀 đ‘Żđ‘œ ·𐑛𐑭𐑀𐑒𐑊; ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 ·𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑀 ·𐑄đ‘Ș𐑛𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘šđ‘¶đ‘Ÿ' ·𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀; 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘– ·𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑓𐑊𐑒 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑻𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑛𐑱 ·𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀. [16]
  4. ^ 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑀𐑎𐑞𐑊𐑙 𐑝 𐑞 𐑯𐑱𐑄 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 𐑚𐑩𐑜𐑹𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑗đ‘Č𐑀𐑛𐑣𐑫𐑛. [18] 𐑣𐑰 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘ąđ‘±đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘„đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑯 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑕𐑑đ‘Ș𐑐 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑊𐑙 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 𐑯𐑱𐑄, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑄𐑱𐑛 𐑩𐑑 𐑯𐑮𐑯 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑧𐑀𐑕 𐑣𐑔 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑧𐑯𐑩 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑒𐑑 𐑓 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑖𐑫𐑛 𐑟𐑊𐑓𐑟𐑱𐑯 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑿𐑟𐑩𐑙 𐑩𐑑—" đ‘Č 𐑣𐑱𐑑 𐑚𐑰𐑩𐑙 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡-d". [19]
  5. ^ 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑩𐑒𐑏𐑯𐑑, ·𐑀𐑰 𐑀𐑧𐑓𐑑 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› 𐑚𐑩𐑒đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑬𐑑𐑜𐑼𐑮𐑯 𐑞 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑐đ‘Șđ‘•đ‘©đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 ·𐑛𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑯; 𐑩𐑯 𐑓𐑹𐑒𐑑, ·𐑀𐑰 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Œđ‘źđ‘°đ‘—đ‘‘ 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑑𐑼đ‘Č𐑩𐑙 𐑑 𐑬𐑕𐑑 ·𐑕𐑻 ·𐑟đ‘Șđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘ Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘żđ‘Œđ‘‘ 𐑹𐑟 𐑞 𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑩'𐑟 𐑀𐑰𐑛𐑊𐑙 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘łđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ. Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘żđ‘Œđ‘‘, đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘§đ‘•đ‘Œ 𐑝 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑑𐑊 ·𐑒đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑥, 𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑬𐑯𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑯, 𐑯 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑰𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑼đ‘Č𐑝𐑩𐑙 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑬𐑑. [20]
  6. ^ 𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑚𐑿𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑚𐑼𐑰𐑗 𐑑 ·𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑊'𐑟 𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑀𐑔𐑠𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑧𐑯 ·𐑀𐑰 𐑩𐑚𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑙𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑝 𐑑𐑰𐑗𐑩𐑙 đ‘„đ‘§đ‘”đ‘©đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘ż 𐑩 𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑀𐑊 𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑻𐑖𐑩𐑀 𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑐𐑀𐑶𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 đ‘œđ‘łđ‘€đ‘©đ‘šđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘đ‘żđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ; đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑀𐑟𐑶𐑛, 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑕𐑩𐑥𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑚𐑧𐑕𐑊 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘“đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑀𐑰'𐑟 đ‘©đ‘“đ‘§đ‘’đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑧𐑀𐑕𐑹đ‘ș, 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑀𐑰𐑕𐑑 𐑑 𐑣𐑻 đ‘›đ‘·đ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑀𐑔𐑕𐑊. [21] [22]
  7. ^ 𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑩 𐑐𐑭𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑚𐑹𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑮𐑯 đ‘đ‘¶đ‘•, [23] 𐑞𐑮 𐑣𐑰 𐑩𐑛𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓𐑾 𐑏𐑑𐑒𐑀𐑭𐑕𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘Œ 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑀𐑔𐑕𐑊, 𐑣𐑔 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑩 đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘œ 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑕𐑩𐑐𐑟𐑭𐑯𐑎 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑞𐑀 Â·đ‘źđ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘© 𐑯 ·𐑛'𐑶𐑀𐑊 ·𐑒𐑞𐑑 đ‘Șđ‘đ‘Œđ‘© đ‘’đ‘łđ‘„đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. [24] [25]
  8. ^ 𐑝𐑧𐑡𐑩𐑑đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 𐑞 đ‘€đ‘łđ‘œđ‘ đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘‘ đ‘šđ‘œđ‘› 𐑹𐑻 𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑞 𐑔𐑩𐑙𐑟 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑱𐑩𐑗 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑩𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑊𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒. 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑷𐑀𐑕𐑎 𐑩 đ‘‘đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Žđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Œ 𐑯 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑯-đ‘•đ‘„đ‘Žđ‘’đ‘Œ, 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯𐑮𐑯 𐑓 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑣𐑩𐑚𐑊𐑗𐑔𐑩𐑀 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑𐑿𐑄 𐑝 𐑳𐑯𐑓𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑹𐑫𐑀𐑩𐑯 đ‘’đ‘€đ‘Žđ‘žđ‘Ÿ, 𐑄𐑱𐑛 𐑓 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑚đ‘Č Jaeger. [7] [31] [32]
  9. ^ 𐑞 ·𐑊𐑟𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 ·𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘Šđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘”đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑓đ‘č𐑄 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀, 𐑩𐑯 1905; [34] đ‘€đ‘łđ‘ ·𐑩𐑄𐑳𐑙 𐑞 ·𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑩𐑯 1900, 𐑚đ‘Č H. Â·đ‘Ÿ. ·𐑕𐑑𐑎𐑯 𐑝 Â·đ‘–đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘­đ‘œđ‘Ž. [35]
  10. ^ 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑓𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 𐑡𐑹𐑯𐑿đ‘ș𐑩 1884 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 đ‘•đ‘đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘œđ‘źđ‘”đ‘ 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 ·𐑓𐑧𐑀𐑎𐑖𐑊𐑐 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑿 ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑓, 𐑩 𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑝 𐑧𐑔𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑓𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑯 1883 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑑đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑕 Â·đ‘›đ‘±đ‘đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ż. [45]
  11. ^ 𐑕𐑳𐑄 𐑼đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 Lisbeth J. ·𐑕𐑚𐑒𐑕, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑕𐑑𐑻𐑯 𐑯 ·𐑕𐑚𐑀𐑊 Â·đ‘đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, đ‘šđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘°đ‘ ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 𐑼𐑩𐑐𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑎𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑔𐑩𐑀, 𐑯 𐑞𐑹𐑑 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑥𐑧𐑯𐑊 Â·đ‘đ‘šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑷𐑀 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐𐑕 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑹𐑊𐑄𐑊𐑯, 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑥, 𐑹𐑻 𐑐𐑀𐑩𐑑đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑒. [58] đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑕𐑳𐑗 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑄đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑕 Â·đ‘đ‘±đ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Š, 𐑕𐑩𐑥𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑹𐑑 𐑀𐑰𐑕𐑑 𐑱𐑳𐑯 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐𐑕—𐑞𐑚𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑓𐑀đ‘č𐑩𐑯𐑕 ·𐑓𐑞𐑟—𐑹đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑄𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛. [59] đ‘§đ‘đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘• 𐑒𐑱𐑄 𐑑 𐑀đ‘Č𐑑 𐑩𐑯 2004 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩 𐑹𐑧𐑀-𐑛đ‘Ș𐑒𐑿𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑖𐑊𐑐 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 𐑞 𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑𐑿𐑩𐑥𐑊𐑯đ‘șđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑖𐑷 𐑯 𐑞 𐑘𐑳𐑙 𐑚𐑒𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑕 ·𐑄đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊 Tompkins 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑, 𐑹𐑟 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑚𐑰𐑯 đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Š đ‘•đ‘©đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘›, 𐑐𐑀𐑩𐑑đ‘Ș𐑯𐑩𐑒. [60] 𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 𐑕𐑑𐑼𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑮𐑯 đ‘Łđ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Žđ‘•đ‘§đ‘’đ‘–đ‘”đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š 𐑑 ·𐑕𐑑 ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 Â·đ‘»đ‘đ‘Č𐑯 ("đ‘Č 𐑚𐑄 𐑞 𐑯đ‘č𐑄𐑩𐑀 đ‘Łđ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Žđ‘•đ‘§đ‘’đ‘–đ‘”đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑄𐑚𐑯") 𐑯 ·𐑓𐑟𐑚𐑙𐑒 ·𐑣𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑕 ("đ‘Č 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑: đ‘Č 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑼đ‘Č𐑀; đ‘Č 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑣𐑎𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑔𐑩𐑀; 𐑯 đ‘Č 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑰𐑄𐑀𐑊, 𐑞𐑮 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑊𐑕𐑒𐑿𐑩𐑕𐑀𐑊, 𐑕𐑩𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀"). [61]
  12. ^ 𐑩 𐑒đ‘č𐑯𐑮 𐑛đ‘Č 𐑚𐑹𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑮 𐑩𐑟 𐑞 Â·đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑯𐑱𐑄 𐑓 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑰𐑑 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑, 𐑞 𐑚𐑹𐑕𐑩𐑑 𐑣đ‘č𐑯. 𐑖𐑷 𐑗𐑮𐑟 𐑩𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑐𐑧𐑯 𐑯𐑱𐑄 𐑚𐑩𐑒đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑣𐑰 𐑔𐑷𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑕𐑰𐑄𐑛 𐑛𐑹𐑖𐑩𐑙: "𐑩𐑑 𐑕𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑀đ‘Č𐑒 𐑩 𐑓đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑯 𐑑đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑀 𐑯 𐑯𐑮𐑚đ‘Ș𐑛𐑩 𐑯𐑿 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑩 𐑒đ‘č𐑯𐑮 𐑛đ‘Č 𐑚𐑹𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑮 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟". 𐑎𐑯𐑀𐑊 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑣𐑰 đ‘Łđ‘œ 𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑛, đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑀đ‘ș𐑛 𐑩𐑑 "𐑩 𐑟𐑧𐑗𐑩𐑛 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 [𐑝] đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘żđ‘€đ‘œ đ‘ąđ‘·đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑄𐑧𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑒𐑎𐑀𐑊.... 𐑞 đ‘›đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 𐑒𐑫𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑄𐑱𐑒 𐑩 𐑚𐑹𐑕𐑩𐑑 𐑣đ‘č𐑯 𐑕𐑐𐑞𐑒𐑩𐑀". [66]
  13. ^ 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑹𐑑 𐑩 𐑐𐑼đ‘Čđ‘đ‘©đ‘‘ đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑀𐑳𐑚 𐑩𐑯 1902; 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑀đ‘Č𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕𐑑 𐑓 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘č𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 1925. [69]
  14. ^ 𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑝 𐑑 𐑞 𐑗𐑾𐑡 𐑝 𐑧𐑄𐑿𐑀𐑱𐑑𐑊𐑙 Â·đ‘œđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘. 𐑣𐑰 𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 Â·đ‘œđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘ 𐑣𐑔 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑣𐑞𐑑𐑀𐑩𐑕, 𐑱đ‘Č𐑀 𐑣𐑰 𐑣𐑊𐑄𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘łđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘. [73]
  15. ^ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ 𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑀𐑔𐑄𐑊𐑙 𐑩𐑯 1895, 𐑞 𐑑𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑑 𐑝 𐑑 𐑘đ‘č ·𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑄đ‘Ș𐑛𐑩𐑓đ‘Č𐑛, 𐑑 𐑚𐑊𐑒𐑳𐑄 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑 𐑯𐑮. 49, 𐑩 ·𐑐𐑀𐑚𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑐𐑱𐑯 𐑓 Â·đ‘€đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Œ. [47] [81]
  16. ^ 𐑖𐑷 đ‘•đ‘»đ‘đ‘› đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 𐑝𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑼𐑩'𐑟 ·𐑣𐑧𐑀𐑔 ·𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑊, 𐑞 ·đ‘Șđ‘“đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ ·𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑓 ·𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒 ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙. [86]
  17. ^ 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑟𐑶𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒đ‘č𐑑 𐑯 𐑞𐑧𐑯 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 Â·đ‘•đ‘©đ‘đ‘¶, 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 đ‘đ‘žđ‘‘đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑚𐑩𐑑𐑱𐑰𐑯 1905 𐑯 1908 𐑹𐑻 𐑿 Â·đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑒𐑹𐑯 ·𐑑𐑧𐑀 (177 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘“đ‘čđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ), ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑯 Â·đ‘•đ‘”đ‘đ‘Œđ‘„đ‘šđ‘Ż (176), ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑚𐑫𐑀'𐑟 đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ ·đ‘Č𐑀𐑩𐑯𐑛 (121), ·𐑒𐑚𐑐𐑑𐑊𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑭𐑕𐑚𐑏𐑯𐑛'𐑟 Â·đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘đ‘»đ‘ đ‘©đ‘Ż (89), Â·đ‘žđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 (77), Â·đ‘„đ‘±đ‘Ąđ‘Œ ·𐑚𐑞𐑚𐑟𐑩 (52), 𐑞 ·𐑛đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ'𐑟 ·𐑛𐑊𐑀𐑧𐑄𐑩 (50), 𐑞 Â·đ‘›đ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€'𐑟 ·𐑛𐑊𐑕đ‘Č𐑐𐑩𐑀 (42), ·𐑒𐑚𐑯𐑛𐑊𐑛𐑩 (31), Â·đ‘•đ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘Œ 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑎𐑐𐑚𐑑𐑟𐑩 (28), 𐑣𐑬 𐑣𐑰 ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑛 𐑑 𐑣𐑻 Â·đ‘Łđ‘łđ‘Ÿđ‘šđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘› (9), 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Œ (8), ·𐑛đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑣𐑹𐑭𐑯 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑣𐑧𐑀 (8) 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑛𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑊 (8). [97]
  18. ^ 𐑖𐑷 đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑄đ‘Ș𐑒𐑑 𐑞 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘œđ‘±đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘’ Â·đ‘€đ‘°đ‘œ 𐑑 𐑼𐑧𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑟𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑄đ‘Șđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ż-𐑛𐑱 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›â€”đ‘ž Â·đ‘€đ‘°đ‘œ 𐑣𐑹𐑛, 𐑣𐑰 𐑕𐑧𐑛, 𐑚𐑰𐑯 "đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘šđ‘§đ‘›đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘› ·𐑐𐑞𐑒, ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯." [101] 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 1950 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑚𐑊 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ, Â·đ‘đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Œ Â·đ‘’đ‘šđ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘· 𐑼𐑮𐑑: "Â·đ‘˜đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘• 𐑯 ·𐑕𐑊𐑯𐑥𐑊 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑓𐑰𐑀 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑚𐑊𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙𐑛 𐑑 𐑞 đ‘źđ‘Ÿđ‘€ ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯. 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑞𐑳𐑕 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑯𐑮 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘". Â·đ‘’đ‘šđ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘· 𐑚𐑛𐑩𐑛, "𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑄𐑐đ‘č𐑑𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑐𐑾𐑑 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘žđ‘œđ‘żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘, 𐑯 Â·đ‘˜đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘• 𐑛𐑊𐑑𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑒𐑱đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑟𐑩𐑄𐑚𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙." [102]
  19. ^ 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑑𐑟𐑰'𐑟 𐑚𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑞 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑳𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯, 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑟𐑎𐑀, Â·đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘§đ‘•đ‘Œ Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿ, 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑑𐑱𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑐 Merivale, 𐑣𐑔 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑛 ·𐑒𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘™ 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯. [118] ·𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑧𐑀 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑯𐑿𐑛 𐑑 𐑟𐑎𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑕đ‘Č𐑟 𐑞 𐑐𐑰𐑕, 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑯𐑑𐑼đ‘ș𐑩 𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ÿ. [116]
  20. ^ 𐑖𐑷 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑚𐑰𐑯 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑯 𐑟𐑊𐑥𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑓 𐑩 ·𐑯𐑎𐑚𐑧𐑀 ·𐑐𐑟đ‘Č𐑟 𐑓đ‘č đ‘č 𐑓đ‘Č𐑝 𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑚𐑩𐑓đ‘č 𐑞𐑩𐑕. [163] 𐑣𐑰 đ‘Œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ąđ‘› 𐑓 𐑞 𐑐𐑼đ‘Č𐑟 𐑄𐑳𐑯𐑊 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑑 𐑕𐑐đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Œ 𐑩 𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Ž-·𐑕𐑹𐑰𐑛𐑊𐑖 Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 ·𐑓𐑏𐑯𐑛𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯, 𐑓 𐑞 đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘€đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 Â·đ‘Šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘– 𐑝 ·𐑕𐑹𐑰𐑛𐑊𐑖 đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘—đ‘Œ, 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑊𐑙 đ‘·đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ Strindberg'𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ. [3]
  21. ^ 𐑩𐑯 1937 𐑞 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑼𐑰𐑩𐑖𐑿𐑛, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩𐑛𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘—đ‘šđ‘đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑑đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑀, 𐑞 ·𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑑 ·𐑹𐑫𐑄𐑩𐑯'𐑟 Â·đ‘œđ‘Č𐑛 𐑑 Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, Â·đ‘’đ‘šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 Â·đ‘“đ‘šđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘đ‘§đ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ż ·𐑚𐑫𐑒𐑕 𐑹𐑟 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑯𐑿 đ‘đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œđ‘šđ‘šđ‘’ đ‘•đ‘œđ‘°đ‘Ÿ 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 Â·đ‘đ‘§đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ. [165]
  22. ^ 𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑩𐑀𐑎𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑚𐑰𐑩𐑙 𐑊𐑯𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑰𐑝𐑛 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ. 𐑞 𐑓đ‘čđ‘„đ‘Œ ·𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖 𐑐𐑼đ‘Č𐑄 đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ Â·đ‘›đ‘±đ‘đ‘Šđ‘› ·𐑀𐑶𐑛 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑒𐑼đ‘Č𐑚𐑛 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘Œ 𐑩𐑯 1936 𐑹𐑟 "𐑳𐑯𐑒𐑹𐑧𐑕𐑗𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑚𐑀𐑊 𐑩 đ‘œđ‘źđ‘±đ‘‘ đ‘€đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œ". [178] 𐑩 đ‘˜đ‘œ đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑓đ‘čđ‘„đ‘Œ Â·đ‘€đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Œ ·𐑐𐑞𐑑𐑊 đ‘€đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Œ ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 Â·đ‘€đ‘­đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑼𐑩𐑒đ‘č𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ "𐑒𐑫𐑛 𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑩𐑯 𐑑 đ‘źđ‘°đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ż", 𐑯 𐑞𐑹𐑑 "·𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑑𐑕 đ‘đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕 𐑄đ‘Č𐑑 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑩 𐑗𐑭𐑯𐑕 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑣𐑊𐑄". [179]
  23. ^ 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑝𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑐𐑫𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑞 𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛—𐑩 đ‘œđ‘Žđ‘€đ‘›đ‘©đ‘Ż đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘˜đ‘Œđ‘°đ‘Żâ€”đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑀𐑐𐑰𐑕. [191] 𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑱𐑳𐑯 𐑝 𐑓đ‘č 𐑑 𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑰𐑝 𐑞 𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛, 𐑩𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 𐑱𐑩𐑞 Â·đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑛𐑚𐑀𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑐𐑩𐑀, ·𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑩𐑀 ·𐑀𐑔𐑊𐑕 𐑯 W. P. Lipscomb, 𐑣𐑔 𐑣𐑹𐑛 𐑷𐑀𐑕𐑎 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑩𐑛𐑚𐑐𐑑𐑊𐑙 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑑𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑑. [192]
  24. ^ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑻𐑀𐑊 1920𐑟 ·𐑀𐑶𐑛 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 𐑣𐑹𐑛 đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘› 𐑐𐑫𐑑𐑊𐑙 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑯𐑱𐑄 𐑓đ‘čđ‘ąđ‘Œđ‘› 𐑓 𐑞 𐑩𐑹đ‘č𐑛, 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑞𐑹𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑚𐑰 𐑄đ‘č 𐑐𐑟𐑔𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑑 đ‘Șđ‘“đ‘Œ 𐑩𐑑 𐑑 J. M. ·𐑚𐑞𐑊, 𐑣𐑔 𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑩𐑑. 𐑖𐑷 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑕𐑧𐑛 𐑣𐑰 𐑹𐑫𐑛 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑼𐑩𐑓𐑿𐑟𐑛 𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑓 đ‘Șđ‘“đ‘Œđ‘›, 𐑡𐑳𐑕𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑣𐑰 𐑼𐑩𐑓𐑿𐑟𐑛 𐑞 đ‘Șđ‘“đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑩 𐑯đ‘Č𐑑𐑣𐑫𐑛. [210]
  25. ^ 𐑞 𐑹𐑻𐑒𐑕 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑎𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑣𐑩𐑟 ·𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑰𐑑 Â·đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑹𐑻 ·𐑐𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯 ·𐑐𐑀𐑱; 𐑳𐑯 ·𐑐𐑧𐑑𐑊 ·𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄; 𐑞 Â·đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘”đ‘› 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑣𐑏𐑕; 𐑚𐑿𐑑𐑩'𐑟 ·𐑛𐑿𐑑𐑊; 𐑩𐑯 𐑳𐑯𐑑đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑀𐑛 𐑐𐑚𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑊 𐑝 ·𐑄𐑩𐑒𐑚𐑧𐑔; 𐑩 Â·đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘đ‘• 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑛đ‘Ș𐑄𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑊𐑕𐑊𐑑𐑊 𐑝 ·𐑓𐑟𐑚𐑙𐑒𐑀𐑊𐑯 ·𐑚𐑞𐑯𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑕 𐑯 𐑣𐑬 𐑞𐑰𐑟 ·𐑛đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘€đ‘łđ‘ 𐑱𐑳𐑯 Â·đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ!. [216]
  26. ^ 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 2003 𐑩𐑯𐑕đ‘Čđ‘’đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘°đ‘›đ‘Ÿ 𐑞𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 đ‘Ș𐑯 ·𐑖𐑷, ·𐑯𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑩𐑕 Â·đ‘œđ‘źđ‘°đ‘Ż 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑕, "𐑞 Â·đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘§đ‘€đ‘© 𐑕𐑑đ‘č𐑩 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘“đ‘€đ‘Źđ‘Œ-đ‘œđ‘»đ‘€ 𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 𐑩 𐑀𐑱𐑛𐑊 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑩 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘§đ‘•đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑧𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘łđ‘€đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓𐑀đ‘Ș𐑙 đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘łđ‘œđ‘©đ‘€ 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑖𐑷, 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑱𐑩𐑞... 𐑑𐑼𐑰 𐑯 𐑞𐑧𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑄 đ‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘›đ‘żđ‘•đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, 𐑑 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑝𐑧𐑯𐑑 𐑩𐑑 𐑚𐑰𐑩𐑙 𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑻𐑯𐑛 𐑑 𐑕𐑑đ‘Ș𐑒 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩'𐑣𐑹𐑐𐑩' 𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑙. 𐑞𐑩𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩 𐑚𐑚𐑑𐑩𐑀 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑑 đ‘€đ‘”đ‘Ÿ 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑕𐑑𐑿𐑄𐑩𐑕𐑀𐑊 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑞 đ‘–đ‘«đ‘œđ‘Œ-𐑒𐑎𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑛𐑊 𐑚𐑛𐑚𐑐𐑑𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯, Â·đ‘€đ‘»đ‘Żđ‘Œ 𐑯 ·𐑀𐑎'𐑟 𐑄đ‘Č ·𐑓đ‘ș ·𐑀𐑱𐑛𐑊 (1956), 𐑱𐑧𐑯𐑑 đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑑 𐑄𐑱𐑒 𐑄đ‘č 𐑄𐑳𐑯𐑊 𐑓 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑 𐑞𐑹𐑯 𐑷𐑀 𐑣𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑐𐑫𐑑 đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘œđ‘§đ‘žđ‘Œ." [241]
  27. ^ 𐑩𐑯 1893 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑀𐑩𐑄 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑀𐑔𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑐𐑚𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑊 𐑝 đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑒𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑒𐑕' đ‘Šđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘„ 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 𐑄đ‘Ș𐑒-𐑚𐑒𐑩𐑛𐑧𐑄𐑊𐑒 𐑩𐑯𐑚𐑀𐑩𐑕𐑊𐑕 𐑝 ·𐑣𐑚𐑄𐑀𐑩𐑑'𐑕" 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 đ‘č 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑑 𐑚𐑰 "𐑕𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑀𐑩𐑒𐑹𐑊: "Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ, 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑙 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑞 𐑒𐑳𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑄đ‘ș𐑩 đ‘§đ‘’đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘›đ‘Ÿđ‘„, đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Źđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑕𐑳𐑚𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑 𐑹𐑑 𐑱𐑳𐑯𐑕 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑩𐑯𐑓𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑝, 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑄𐑔𐑛 𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑟 đ‘đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Š 𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑰𐑑𐑩𐑛 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑩 𐑖đ‘č𐑑 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑐𐑹𐑕𐑩𐑡 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗, 𐑚𐑼𐑰𐑓 𐑹𐑟 𐑩𐑑 𐑩𐑟, 𐑱𐑰 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘’đ‘©đ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Č𐑟 𐑞 đ‘·đ‘€đ‘‘đ‘»đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑯 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑓đ‘čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑕𐑮 𐑄𐑳𐑗 𐑝 𐑞 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘“đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘• 𐑝 𐑟𐑧𐑐𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑩𐑐𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑟. đ‘Łđ‘œ 𐑱𐑰 𐑼𐑰𐑗 𐑩 𐑒𐑎𐑀𐑩𐑯; 𐑯 𐑩 𐑐𐑶𐑯𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑐𐑮𐑟𐑩𐑑đ‘č𐑩 đ‘“đ‘źđ‘±đ‘Ÿ, 𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑞 𐑚𐑒𐑕𐑩𐑯𐑑 đ‘“đ‘·đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑛𐑩𐑕đ‘Čđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘đ‘€đ‘Š đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ 𐑐𐑼𐑮𐑯𐑬𐑯, 𐑚𐑼𐑩𐑙𐑟 𐑳𐑕 𐑑 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑓𐑫𐑀 𐑕𐑑đ‘Ș𐑐." [250]
  28. ^ 𐑩𐑯 𐑩 1969 𐑕𐑑𐑳𐑛𐑩, ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 F. Â·đ‘„đ‘šđ‘”đ‘żđ‘Ÿ 𐑒𐑼𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑𐑕 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑓𐑩𐑀 𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑐𐑱𐑯 đ‘©đ‘œđ‘±đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘ 𐑞 𐑑𐑔-𐑣𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑟𐑩𐑛-đ‘˜đ‘œ-𐑎𐑀𐑛 𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑙 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑔 "𐑹𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑙 đ‘đ‘»đ‘ đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ", đ‘Ș𐑓𐑩𐑯 𐑛𐑩𐑟đ‘Č𐑯𐑛 𐑑 𐑜𐑩𐑝 𐑕𐑑𐑾 đ‘šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ đ‘œđ‘źđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑯𐑩𐑯𐑕, 𐑑 𐑞 𐑛𐑧𐑑𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 𐑐𐑀𐑱 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 𐑣𐑎𐑀. [262] [263] 𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯 đ‘“đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑒𐑳𐑑𐑕 𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑑 𐑩𐑯𐑣𐑭𐑯𐑕 𐑞 𐑛𐑟𐑭𐑄𐑩 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑎𐑄𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑣𐑰 𐑕𐑷 𐑹𐑟 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż đ‘źđ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘’. [264]
  29. ^ 𐑩𐑯 1937 𐑞 𐑚𐑫𐑒 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑼𐑰𐑩𐑖𐑿𐑛, 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩𐑛𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 đ‘—đ‘šđ‘đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑩𐑯 𐑊𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑑đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑀, 𐑞 ·𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑑 ·𐑹𐑫𐑄𐑩𐑯'𐑟 Â·đ‘œđ‘Č𐑛 𐑑 Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, Â·đ‘’đ‘šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 Â·đ‘“đ‘šđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„, 𐑯 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č Â·đ‘đ‘§đ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ż ·𐑚𐑫𐑒𐑕 𐑹𐑟 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 𐑯𐑿 đ‘đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œđ‘šđ‘šđ‘’ đ‘•đ‘œđ‘°đ‘Ÿ 𐑒𐑷𐑀𐑛 Â·đ‘đ‘§đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ. [165]
  30. ^ 𐑞 𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑣𐑩𐑕𐑑đ‘čđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż Â·đ‘›đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘€ Â·đ‘’đ‘§đ‘đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑕: "𐑖𐑷... 𐑛𐑩𐑛 𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑕𐑐đ‘ș 𐑞 𐑿𐑡𐑧𐑯𐑩𐑒𐑕 đ‘„đ‘”đ‘đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑳𐑯𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀 𐑄đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘Œđ‘Š... [𐑣𐑰] 𐑚𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑏𐑑𐑟𐑱𐑥𐑩𐑕 𐑚𐑩𐑓𐑔𐑯 𐑹𐑑 𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ." [277]
  31. ^ 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 21𐑕𐑑 đ‘•đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Š ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 1930𐑟 đ‘“đ‘€đ‘»đ‘‘đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 đ‘“đ‘šđ‘–đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑊𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑿𐑡𐑧𐑯𐑩𐑒𐑕 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑚𐑰𐑯 đ‘źđ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘Œđ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 𐑑𐑰𐑝𐑰 𐑑𐑷𐑒-𐑖𐑮 𐑣𐑮𐑕𐑑𐑕 𐑑 𐑛𐑩𐑐𐑩𐑒𐑑 𐑣𐑊𐑄 𐑹𐑟 𐑩 "𐑄đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ" 𐑯 𐑑 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑛𐑩𐑕𐑐𐑹𐑼𐑩𐑡 𐑞 đ‘’đ‘·đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘żđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑱𐑩𐑗 𐑣𐑰 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑕𐑎𐑖𐑊𐑱𐑑𐑩𐑛, 𐑄𐑎𐑕𐑑 đ‘đ‘Œđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘żđ‘€đ‘Œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑯 đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. [175]
  32. ^ đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘©đ‘€ 𐑝đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘żđ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑣𐑹𐑝 𐑚𐑰𐑯 𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑖𐑑 𐑝 𐑞 𐑒đ‘Ș𐑼𐑩𐑕𐑐đ‘Ș𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯𐑕 𐑱𐑩𐑞 ·𐑑𐑧𐑟𐑊 (𐑩𐑖𐑿𐑛 1931), ·𐑑𐑳𐑯𐑊 (1951), ·𐑒𐑚𐑄𐑚𐑧𐑀 (1952), Â·đ‘›đ‘łđ‘œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘• (1982) 𐑯 Â·đ‘ąđ‘§đ‘€đ‘Ÿ (1995). [287]
  33. ^ 𐑖𐑷 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑯𐑔𐑿𐑟𐑩𐑹𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑒 đ‘šđ‘„đ‘©đ‘—đ‘Œ 𐑓𐑩𐑑đ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Œ 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 1898 𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑀 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑛𐑧𐑔, 𐑩𐑄𐑚𐑕𐑊𐑙 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 10,000 𐑐𐑼𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑕 𐑯 𐑄đ‘č 𐑞𐑹𐑯 10,000 đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘œđ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘đ‘Ÿ 𐑛đ‘Ș𐑒𐑿𐑄𐑧𐑯𐑑𐑊𐑙 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑼𐑧𐑯𐑛𐑟, đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘šđ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ, 𐑐đ‘Ș𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑕, đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ, đ‘“đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘„đ‘Ÿ 𐑯 𐑣𐑎𐑄 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓. 𐑞 𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑩𐑟 𐑾𐑒đ‘Č𐑝𐑛 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑒𐑔𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑰𐑒𐑩𐑯đ‘Ș𐑄𐑊𐑒𐑕; 𐑩𐑯 𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑊𐑚𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑣𐑩𐑟 𐑓𐑩𐑑đ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Š, "𐑄𐑚𐑯 𐑯 Â·đ‘’đ‘šđ‘„đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘„đ‘©đ‘Ż", 𐑎𐑐𐑩𐑯𐑛 𐑩𐑯 2011 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑓đ‘Ș𐑒𐑕 ·𐑑𐑷𐑀𐑚𐑩𐑑 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿđ‘„ 𐑩𐑯 𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑥𐑳𐑙𐑒𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑱𐑩𐑞 𐑩𐑯 đ‘Ș𐑯𐑀đ‘Č𐑯 𐑧𐑒𐑕𐑊𐑚𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯 đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘©đ‘› 𐑚đ‘Č 𐑞 LSE. [289]
  34. ^ 𐑞 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑟 𐑩𐑓𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑀𐑊 𐑩𐑕𐑧𐑕𐑑 𐑹𐑟 𐑹𐑻𐑔£367,233 𐑹𐑑 𐑞 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 𐑝 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑛𐑧𐑔. 𐑷𐑀𐑞𐑎 𐑛𐑧𐑔 𐑛𐑿𐑑𐑩𐑟 đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘đ‘œđ‘€đ‘Š 𐑼𐑩𐑛𐑿𐑕𐑑 𐑞 đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘Ąđ‘”đ‘ș𐑩 𐑕𐑳𐑄, đ‘źđ‘¶đ‘©đ‘€đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ 𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 𐑄đ‘Č ·𐑓đ‘ș ·𐑀𐑱𐑛𐑊 đ‘€đ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑚𐑔𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑛 𐑞 𐑊𐑯𐑒𐑳𐑄 𐑝 𐑞 𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑 𐑚đ‘Č đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż 𐑐𐑬𐑯𐑛𐑟. [298] [299]

đ‘źđ‘§đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑕đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

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  40. ^ yde 2013, p. 46.
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  336. ^ 𐑩 b ·𐑄đ‘čđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Ż 1951, p. 100.
  337. ^ 𐑒𐑎𐑀 1949, p. 148.
  338. ^ 𐑑đ‘Ș𐑄𐑀𐑊𐑯𐑕𐑩𐑯 1950, p. 709.

𐑕đ‘čđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

·𐑚𐑫𐑒𐑕[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

𐑖𐑷'𐑟 𐑼đ‘Č𐑑𐑩𐑙𐑟[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

  • ·𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1884). 𐑩 ·𐑄𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑓𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑎 (Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑 𐑯𐑮. 2). ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: 𐑜𐑼𐑭𐑯𐑑 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘›đ‘Ÿ. OCLC 4674581.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛, 𐑧𐑛. (1889). Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż Â·đ‘§đ‘•đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„. ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊. OCLC 867941203.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1890). 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 Â·đ‘•đ‘Žđ‘–đ‘©đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑩𐑟 (Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑 𐑯𐑮. 13). ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: 𐑜𐑼𐑭𐑯𐑑 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘›đ‘Ÿ. OCLC 4674562.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1900). Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑧𐑄𐑐đ‘Čđ‘Œ. ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: 𐑜𐑼𐑭𐑯𐑑 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘›đ‘Ÿ. OCLC 2688559.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1914). "𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑯 ·𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 𐑞 ·𐑹đ‘č". 𐑒𐑳𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑑 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Š 𐑝 𐑞 Â·đ‘˜đ‘«đ‘Œđ‘©đ‘đ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑹đ‘č. 1 (1). 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 ·𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ.
  • 𐑖𐑷, G. ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (9 𐑱𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀 1916). "·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 ·𐑯đ‘Ș𐑯𐑕𐑧𐑯𐑕 𐑩𐑚𐑏𐑑 ·đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘€đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘›" (PDF). 𐑞 ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘˜đ‘č𐑒 ·𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1929). 𐑞 Â·đ‘€đ‘°đ‘œ 𐑝 Â·đ‘Żđ‘±đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑑𐑟𐑚𐑒𐑑 𐑯𐑮. 226. ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: 𐑞 Â·đ‘“đ‘±đ‘šđ‘Ÿđ‘Ż ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊. OCLC 612985.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1934). 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑰𐑑 Â·đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷. ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: Â·đ‘Žđ‘›đ‘©đ‘„đ‘Ÿ. OCLC 492566054.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1944). 𐑧𐑝𐑼𐑩𐑚đ‘Ș𐑛𐑩'𐑟 ·𐑐𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑀 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑'𐑕 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑. ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀. OCLC 892140394.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1949). "𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ' Â·đ‘šđ‘€đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘’đ‘Œđ‘§đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘›". 𐑕𐑩𐑒𐑕𐑑𐑰𐑯 ·𐑕𐑧𐑀𐑓 Â·đ‘•đ‘’đ‘§đ‘—đ‘©đ‘Ÿ. ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: 𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑕𐑑𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀. OCLC 185519922.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1965). ·𐑛𐑚𐑯 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 (𐑧𐑛.). 𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 Â·đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ, Â·đ‘đ‘Ș𐑀𐑿𐑄 1: 1874–1897. ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: ·𐑟đ‘Č𐑯𐑣𐑾𐑑. OCLC 185512253.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1969). ·𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑯𐑀𐑊 ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚 (𐑧𐑛.). 𐑖𐑷: 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Š, 1856–1898. ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: ·𐑟đ‘Č𐑯𐑣𐑾𐑑. ISBN 978-0-370-01328-2.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1981). ·𐑛𐑚𐑯 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 (𐑧𐑛.). 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’: 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑰𐑑 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷, Â·đ‘đ‘Ș𐑀𐑿𐑄 1 (1876–1890). ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: 𐑞 ·𐑚đ‘Ș𐑛𐑀𐑊 ·𐑣𐑧𐑛. ISBN 978-0-370-30247-8.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1981). ·𐑛𐑚𐑯 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 (𐑧𐑛.). 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’: 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑰𐑑 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷, Â·đ‘đ‘Ș𐑀𐑿𐑄 2 (1890–1893). ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: 𐑞 ·𐑚đ‘Ș𐑛𐑀𐑊 ·𐑣𐑧𐑛. ISBN 978-0-370-30249-2.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1981). ·𐑛𐑚𐑯 ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕 (𐑧𐑛.). 𐑖𐑷'𐑟 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’: 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑩𐑄𐑐𐑀𐑰𐑑 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘„ 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷, Â·đ‘đ‘Ș𐑀𐑿𐑄 3 (1893–1950). ·𐑀𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑩𐑯: 𐑞 ·𐑚đ‘Ș𐑛𐑀𐑊 ·𐑣𐑧𐑛. ISBN 978-0-370-30248-5.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (1998). "𐑖𐑷'𐑟 đ‘©đ‘›đ‘đ‘Č𐑕 𐑑 ·đ‘Č𐑟𐑊𐑖𐑄𐑧𐑯". 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘›, ·𐑓𐑟𐑧𐑛 D. (𐑧𐑛.). 𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ, Â·đ‘đ‘Ș𐑀𐑿𐑄 18. đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š ·𐑐𐑞𐑒, ·𐑐𐑭: Â·đ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘•đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘đ‘±đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ ·𐑕𐑑𐑱𐑑 Â·đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š ·𐑐𐑟𐑧𐑕. 𐑐𐑡𐑟. 63–66. ISBN 978-0-271-01779-2. JSTOR 40681536.
  • 𐑖𐑷, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 (2003)." đ‘Ș𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑟đ‘Ș𐑒𐑕 (𐑰𐑚𐑫𐑒)". 𐑐𐑼đ‘Ș𐑡𐑧𐑒𐑑 Â·đ‘œđ‘”đ‘‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘œ ·đ‘Șđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘źđ‘±đ‘€đ‘Ÿ. 𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑼𐑰𐑝𐑛 13 𐑓𐑧𐑚𐑟𐑔đ‘ș𐑩 2016.

đ‘Ąđ‘»đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

  • Â·đ‘šđ‘€đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘­đ‘Żđ‘›đ‘Œ, ·𐑛đ‘č𐑩𐑕 M. (𐑱𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀 1959). "𐑒𐑹𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑚𐑯𐑑 𐑯 ·𐑒𐑚𐑐𐑑𐑊𐑯 ·𐑚𐑟𐑭𐑕𐑚𐑏𐑯𐑛: 𐑞 ·đ‘č𐑩𐑡𐑩𐑯 𐑝 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑎'𐑯𐑰𐑀 Â·đ‘’đ‘šđ‘źđ‘©đ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ". 𐑄đ‘Șđ‘›đ‘Œđ‘Ż Â·đ‘€đ‘šđ‘™đ‘œđ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘Ą ·𐑯𐑎𐑑𐑕. 74 (4): 306–310. JSTOR 3040068.
  • Â·đ‘šđ‘œđ‘šđ‘Žđ‘„, ·𐑄𐑚𐑒𐑕 (𐑡𐑹𐑯𐑿đ‘ș𐑩 1962). "𐑄𐑟 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 ·𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑓𐑧𐑖𐑩𐑯". 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż. 5 (1): 5–9. JSTOR 40681959. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑚đ‘Ș𐑖, ·𐑄đ‘ș𐑩𐑹𐑯 (1984). "đ‘„đ‘łđ‘žđ‘Œ, Â·đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘‘đ‘Œ, 𐑯 ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑓 𐑩𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘„đ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘ș𐑩𐑕". 𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. 4: 113–127. JSTOR 40681122. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑚𐑟𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑯, ·𐑓𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑐 Â·đ‘Ÿ. (𐑥𐑩𐑀đ‘Č 1946). "𐑚𐑫𐑒 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż: 𐑞 ·𐑒𐑟đ‘Č𐑄 𐑝 Â·đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘„đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘". ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 ·𐑥𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑐𐑳𐑚𐑀𐑊𐑒 ·𐑣𐑧𐑀𐑔. 36 (7): 808. 𐑛𐑔𐑊: 10.2105/AJPH.36.7.808-𐑩. PMC 1625829.
  • đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘›, ·𐑓𐑟𐑧𐑛 D. (đ‘•đ‘§đ‘đ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1975). "đ‘Ąđ‘»đ‘Żđ‘©đ‘€đ‘Ÿ 𐑑 ·𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑀𐑩". 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż. 18 (3): 93–109. JSTOR 40682408. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘›, ·𐑓𐑟𐑧𐑛 D. (·𐑕𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑙 1982). "·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 Â·đ‘”đ‘œđ‘Š 𐑝 Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 ·𐑞𐑑". 𐑥𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑝 Â·đ‘Ąđ‘§đ‘Żđ‘Œđ‘©đ‘€ ·𐑧𐑥𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯. 34 (1): 20.
  • đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘›, ·𐑓𐑟𐑧𐑛 D. (1988). "𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 ·𐑛đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘Šđ‘Ÿ". 𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. 8: 139–143. JSTOR 40681240. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • Â·đ‘’đ‘źđ‘·đ‘“đ‘Œđ‘›, ·𐑓𐑟𐑧𐑛 D. (1990). "đ‘ąđ‘±đ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘đ‘€đ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑯 Â·đ‘łđ‘Żđ‘đ‘€đ‘§đ‘Ÿđ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘: 𐑒𐑩𐑀𐑧𐑒𐑑𐑩𐑛 Â·đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ ·𐑓đ‘č". 𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. 10: 148–154. JSTOR 40681299. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑛𐑔𐑒đ‘č, ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛; 𐑧𐑑 𐑭𐑀. (1994). "𐑓𐑼đ‘Ș𐑄 Â·đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘„đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘Ÿđ‘„: 𐑱đ‘Ș𐑑 𐑄𐑱 ·𐑀đ‘Č ·𐑩𐑣𐑧𐑛 𐑓 ·𐑖𐑷 đ‘­đ‘“đ‘‘đ‘Œ 𐑞 𐑓𐑻𐑕𐑑 ·𐑣𐑳𐑯𐑛𐑟𐑩𐑛 Â·đ‘˜đ‘œđ‘Ÿ?". 𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. 14: 265–276. JSTOR 40655127. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • Â·đ‘œđ‘­đ‘­đ‘Ż, Â·đ‘đ‘°đ‘‘đ‘Œ (2010). "·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑯 𐑞 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 ·𐑑𐑟𐑩𐑛𐑊𐑖𐑩𐑯". 𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. 30: 1–26. 𐑛𐑔𐑊: 10.5325/𐑖𐑷.30.1.0001. JSTOR 10.5325/𐑖𐑷.30.1.0001. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • Â·đ‘œđ‘§đ‘›đ‘łđ‘€đ‘›, H. M. (𐑡𐑹𐑯𐑿đ‘ș𐑩 1961). "·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑯 ·𐑚𐑛đ‘Ș𐑀𐑓 Â·đ‘Łđ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘€đ‘Œ". 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż. 4 (1): 11–20. JSTOR 40682385. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑣đ‘Ș𐑓𐑕𐑑𐑧𐑯, ·𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑕𐑑 (2 𐑱𐑐𐑟𐑩𐑀 1904). "𐑞 Â·đ‘đ‘€đ‘±đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷". 𐑞 ·𐑕𐑎𐑩𐑯𐑰 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż. 12 (2): 217–222. JSTOR 27530625. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑒𐑧𐑯𐑑, ·𐑚𐑟𐑚𐑛 (·𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑄 2008). "𐑞 ·𐑚𐑚𐑯𐑊𐑙 𐑝 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟'𐑞 Â·đ‘©đ‘›đ‘đ‘§đ‘Żđ‘—đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ 𐑝 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑀𐑚𐑒 Â·đ‘œđ‘»đ‘€ 𐑩𐑯 𐑣𐑻 ·𐑕𐑻𐑗 𐑓 Â·đ‘œđ‘Ș𐑛' 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑛𐑊𐑒𐑀đ‘Č𐑯 𐑝 𐑞 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 ·𐑩𐑒𐑚𐑛𐑩𐑄𐑊 𐑝 Â·đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ". ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 Â·đ‘żđ‘Żđ‘Šđ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Š Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż. 38 (2): 274–291. JSTOR 40344299. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕, ·𐑛𐑚𐑯, 𐑧𐑛. (𐑡𐑹𐑯𐑿đ‘ș𐑩 1955). "𐑞 ·𐑚𐑀𐑚𐑙𐑒𐑎 Â·đ‘đ‘Žđ‘Ÿđ‘Żđ‘§đ‘‘ ·𐑒đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘źđ‘©đ‘đ‘»đ‘•đ‘Š". 𐑖𐑷 ·𐑕𐑩𐑕đ‘Č𐑩𐑑𐑊 𐑝 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩 ·𐑚𐑫𐑀𐑩𐑑𐑊𐑯: 1–9. JSTOR 40681313. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑀đ‘Ș𐑟𐑩𐑯𐑕, ·𐑛𐑚𐑯 (1985)."' 𐑞𐑹𐑑 ·𐑷𐑓𐑩𐑀 ·𐑒𐑳𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑊': 𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩". 𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. 5: 279–297. JSTOR 40681161. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • Â·đ‘€đ‘œđ‘Š, Â·đ‘›đ‘šđ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘€ J. (đ‘Żđ‘Žđ‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1971). "𐑣𐑬 ·𐑖𐑷 ·𐑛𐑊𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑶𐑛 𐑣𐑩𐑟 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 ·𐑚đ‘Čđ‘Șđ‘œđ‘źđ‘©đ‘“đ‘Œ" (PDF). Â·đ‘’đ‘©đ‘€đ‘łđ‘„đ‘šđ‘Ÿ ·𐑀đ‘Č𐑚𐑼đ‘ș𐑩 ·𐑒đ‘Șđ‘€đ‘©đ‘„đ‘Ÿ. 21 (2): 3–11.
  • 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄 ·𐑊𐑙𐑒. (12 đ‘·đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ 1946). "𐑷𐑀 ·đ‘Șđ‘Żđ‘Œ 𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 Â·đ‘Ąđ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘•; 𐑚𐑳𐑑 𐑣𐑩𐑟 ·𐑄𐑧𐑕𐑊𐑥 𐑩𐑟 Â·đ‘Šđ‘źđ‘§đ‘€đ‘©đ‘đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘ 𐑑 đ‘Źđ‘Œ ·𐑐𐑟đ‘Șđ‘šđ‘€đ‘©đ‘„đ‘Ÿ ·𐑑𐑩𐑛𐑱". 𐑀đ‘Č𐑓: 26.
  • 𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑯, Â·đ‘đ‘Šđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Œ (2010). "𐑖𐑷 𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 ·đ‘Č𐑼𐑩𐑖 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ: 𐑐𐑚𐑕𐑱 đ‘č ·𐑒𐑩𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑄𐑐𐑑𐑩𐑚𐑩𐑀?". 𐑖𐑷. 30: 216–235. 𐑛𐑔𐑊: 10.5325/𐑖𐑷.30.1.0216. JSTOR 10.5325/𐑖𐑷.30.1.0216. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑄đ‘čđ‘œđ‘©đ‘Ż, L. N. (·𐑕𐑐𐑟𐑊𐑙 1951). "·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑞 ·𐑐𐑀𐑱𐑟đ‘Č𐑑". 𐑚𐑫𐑒𐑕 ·𐑩𐑚𐑟𐑷𐑛. 25 (2): 100–104. JSTOR 40089890. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • Â·đ‘Żđ‘§đ‘”đ‘Œđ‘’đ‘Ș𐑑, Â·đ‘žđ‘”đ‘Œ (𐑡𐑹𐑯𐑿đ‘ș𐑩 1964). "𐑩 ·𐑐𐑀𐑰 𐑓 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷". 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż. 7 (1): 2–9. JSTOR 40682015. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • Â·đ‘đ‘œđ‘•, ·𐑟đ‘Șđ‘šđ‘Œđ‘‘ B. (2011). "·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑟 Â·đ‘–đ‘±đ‘’đ‘•đ‘đ‘œ ·𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒". 𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. 31 (1): 118–132. 𐑛𐑔𐑊: 10.5325/𐑖𐑷.31.1.0118. JSTOR 10.5325/𐑖𐑷.31.1.0118. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • "𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯: đ‘’đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘±đ‘‘đ‘Šđ‘ Â·đ‘źđ‘§đ‘đ‘©đ‘€đ‘”đ‘–đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘ș𐑩". 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄. 4 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1950.
  • ·𐑟𐑎𐑛𐑧𐑯𐑚𐑧𐑒, ·𐑥đ‘Ș𐑯 (𐑄𐑱 1969). "𐑞 ·𐑊𐑟𐑚𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 ·𐑯đ‘Ș𐑑: 𐑖𐑷 𐑯 𐑞 Â·đ‘żđ‘•đ‘©đ‘Ÿ 𐑝 ·𐑊𐑚𐑕𐑩𐑯". 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż. 12 (2). JSTOR 40682171. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑖𐑞𐑐, Â·đ‘ąđ‘Šđ‘€đ‘Ÿđ‘„ (𐑄𐑱 1959)."' 𐑜𐑧𐑑𐑩𐑙 ·𐑄𐑚𐑟𐑊𐑛' ·𐑯𐑿 Â·đ‘›đ‘źđ‘­đ‘„đ‘©đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ąđ‘Š 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑒đ‘Ș𐑄𐑩𐑛𐑊". 𐑧𐑥𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑥𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑀. 11 (2): 103–109. JSTOR 3204732. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑕𐑀𐑎𐑯, Â·đ‘œđ‘šđ‘źđ‘Š (·𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑄 2004). "𐑞 ·𐑟𐑊𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯 𐑝 ·𐑥đ‘č𐑡 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷: 𐑱𐑧𐑯 𐑩𐑟 𐑩𐑯 ·𐑱𐑔𐑰𐑊𐑕𐑑?". ·𐑩𐑄𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒𐑩𐑯 ·𐑱𐑔𐑰𐑊𐑕𐑑. 𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑼𐑰𐑝𐑛 18 𐑓𐑧𐑚𐑟𐑔đ‘ș𐑩 2016.
  • 𐑹𐑷𐑀𐑊𐑕, ·𐑧𐑟𐑊𐑒 (1991). "𐑞 ·𐑊𐑯𐑑𐑧𐑀𐑊𐑥𐑩𐑯𐑑 ·𐑹𐑫𐑄𐑩𐑯'𐑟 Â·đ‘œđ‘Č𐑛: 𐑕𐑳𐑄 Â·đ‘’đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘‘đ‘§đ‘„đ‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 Â·đ‘©đ‘đ‘Šđ‘Żđ‘˜đ‘©đ‘Żđ‘Ÿ". 𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑥𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. 11: 185–193. JSTOR 40681331.
  • đ‘ąđ‘°đ‘€đ‘Ÿ, ·𐑥𐑧𐑟𐑩𐑀𐑛. "𐑩 ·𐑣𐑚𐑯𐑛 𐑹𐑑 ·𐑖𐑷'𐑟 ·𐑒𐑻𐑑𐑩𐑯". 𐑞 ·𐑣𐑳𐑛𐑕𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż. 19 (𐑷𐑑𐑩𐑄 1966): 518–522. JSTOR 3849269. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • Â·đ‘ąđ‘°đ‘€đ‘Ÿ, ·𐑥𐑧𐑟𐑩𐑀𐑛 (𐑄𐑱 1969). "𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑰𐑯𐑟đ‘Čđ‘‘đ‘Œ". 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘źđ‘Šđ‘đ‘ż. 12 (2): 80–82. JSTOR 40682173. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚, ·𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑯𐑀𐑊 (2002). "𐑖𐑷'𐑟 Â·đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘–đ‘©đ‘Ż: Â·đ‘§đ‘›đ‘ąđ‘Œđ‘› Â·đ‘§đ‘€đ‘œđ‘ž". 𐑖𐑷: 𐑞 ·𐑚𐑯𐑿𐑩𐑀 𐑝 ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 Â·đ‘•đ‘‘đ‘łđ‘›đ‘Šđ‘Ÿ. 22: 1–88. 𐑛𐑔𐑊: 10.1353/𐑖𐑷.2002.0017. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑹đ‘Č𐑯𐑑𐑟𐑷𐑚, ·𐑕𐑑𐑚𐑯𐑀𐑊 (22 đ‘·đ‘œđ‘©đ‘•đ‘‘ 2011). "GBS 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑛𐑧𐑕𐑐đ‘Ș𐑑𐑕". 𐑞 ·𐑑đ‘Čđ‘„đ‘Ÿ Â·đ‘€đ‘Šđ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘ș𐑩 ·𐑕𐑳𐑐𐑀𐑊𐑄𐑩𐑯𐑑. 𐑼𐑩𐑑𐑼𐑰𐑝𐑛 4 𐑓𐑧𐑚𐑟𐑔đ‘ș𐑩 2016.
  • 𐑱𐑧𐑕𐑑, ·𐑰. J. (đ‘Șđ‘’đ‘‘đ‘Žđ‘šđ‘Œ 1952). "𐑞 ·𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑑𐑊𐑒 𐑹𐑟 ·𐑚𐑯𐑩𐑀𐑊𐑕𐑑: ·𐑚𐑻𐑯𐑞𐑛 ·𐑖𐑷 𐑹𐑟 Â·đ‘Šđ‘œđ‘Ÿđ‘­đ‘„đ‘đ‘©đ‘€". 𐑧𐑥𐑩𐑒𐑱𐑖𐑩𐑯𐑩𐑀 Â·đ‘”đ‘Ÿđ‘‘đ‘Œ ·𐑥𐑻𐑯𐑩𐑀. 4 (3): 200–205. JSTOR 3203744. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)
  • ·𐑹𐑧𐑕𐑑𐑟𐑳𐑐, ·𐑕𐑻 ·𐑥𐑚𐑒 (𐑡𐑹𐑯𐑿đ‘ș𐑩 1966). "𐑖𐑷 𐑯 𐑞 ·𐑖𐑞𐑀𐑩𐑑𐑩𐑯 Â·đ‘Ąđ‘°đ‘Żđ‘Ÿđ‘•". đ‘„đ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘Šđ‘’ 𐑯 Â·đ‘€đ‘§đ‘‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ. 47 (1): 57–58. JSTOR 732134. (𐑕𐑩𐑚𐑕𐑒𐑟𐑊𐑐𐑖𐑩𐑯 𐑼𐑩𐑒𐑱đ‘Čđ‘Œđ‘›)

Â·đ‘Żđ‘żđ‘Ÿđ‘đ‘±đ‘đ‘Œđ‘Ÿ[ 𐑧𐑛𐑩𐑑]

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Â·đ‘’đ‘łđ‘đ‘Œ 𐑝 𐑑đ‘Č𐑄

24 đ‘›đ‘Šđ‘•đ‘§đ‘„đ‘šđ‘Œ 1923
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